|Abstract: ||國內的實證研究及調查均指出,就業市場或明顯或隱藏的性別歧視,使得女性在就業的各個面向上,一直處於不利地位。而國家對「家庭」不涉入的立場,更形成婦女兼顧家庭與工作上的困境。 兩性工作平等的立法,背後有實踐「社會人權」的信念與堅持。其中的價值關懷是「正義」、「自由」及「平等」。出於「正義」的關懷是因為我們對人之主體性的強調與對他人生命尊嚴及價值的承認。出於「自由」及「平等」的考量,是因為這兩種價值在資本主義及男尊女卑的文化裡,對大多數人的生活機會難以產生任何實質意義。缺乏選擇的自由,因為少了「積極作為」的意義,故不是實質的自由;而「機會平等」則對缺乏資源的人而言,頂多做到的是「形式平等」,卻無法改善其弱勢地位。 觀諸國際趨勢及先進國家的工作平等的立法方向,男女平權的追求,已跳脫狹義的福利觀,而是將其視為一項重要權利的主張。在此概念下,「親職」的呼籲取代了「母職」的召喚,育兒托老也自然成為國家社會的共同責任。當國家開始正視婦女的實際生活限制後,方有可能出現從婦女角度來協助其獨立自主的公共政策。 現行我國兩性工作平等立法內容,不論就範圍及周延性而言,均較國際基準差距甚遠,但仍遭到相當大的阻力,除了觀念的限制與對婦女人力之定位不明確外,國家未能體認其應負起的責任,更是該法推動的最大障礙。|
Study and survey show workplace discrimination did exist and has put female workers in a disadvantaged position. In addition, the non-involvement policy of the state into the private sphere poses to women a great challenge in balancing work and family responsibility. Workplace equality law is to realize social rights as its ideal. Justice, freedom and equality are its core values that should serve as policy guidelines. Absence of those guiding principles will threaten individual autonomy and sovereignty. Without freedom and equality, life will be lacking substantive meaning. Equal opportunity is at most formal equality to those who lack resources, while freedom without choice can hardly qualify as real freedom by which individuals make choices and take responsibility for themselves. In view of the legislative tendency of those advanced countries and the efforts of international organizations, equal rights movement has evolved from welfare concern towards rights claim. Parenthood takes place of motherhood as a result of this new conceptualization, leading to policy change of the state by taking in the responsibility of child care as well as elderly care. Only when the state is able to face the bleak experiences women encounter can gender-sensitive public policy emerge to address women's issues. The current workplace equality legislation is far short of international standard both in its comprehensiveness and sophistication. Nevertheless, it faces enormous resistance, especially from economical sectors. The biggest obstacle to this legislation is the state itself who has not yet recognized its role in this whole affair.