|Abstract: ||溼地通常形成於水、陸系統的承繼地區,因而形塑出特殊的自然特性。這些自然特性如果明智地加以保育利用,一般將可為人類提供生態、經濟與景觀等多項服務價值。但是溼地保育政策如果未能獲得民眾的支持,將難以順利地推動或運作,因此,本文擬從「以人民為本位」的角度出發,利用民眾溼地保育意向與評價調查,分析台北市與台南縣居民對溼地的保育意向與評價,並將之區分為台北關渡溼地、台南七股溼地「所在地」與「非所在地」兩種不同階層、單一、四大、五大溼地三種不同保育方案做探討。 結果顯示,於受訪者「真實」回答的假設情況下,在溼地保育意向方面:台北市明顯高於台南縣,而台南七股溼地「非所在地」又明顯高於「所在地」,台北市則無明顯差異;在台北市與溼地保育意向關係較明顯的變項係性別、溼地知覺與投入意圖,女性、傾向正面知覺者與有投入意圖者有較高的保育意向,至於台南縣則以年齡、教育程度、職業、溼地熟悉度、投入經驗與投入意圖等變項與溼地保育意向有較明顯的關係,愈年輕者、教育程度愈高者、傾向「勞心」者保育意向愈高,但卻出現熟悉度愈高、有投入經驗與意圖者有較低保育意向的「異常」現象。在溼地保育評價方面:不論是Probit、Logit或OLS模式估計結果,在台北市於關渡、四大或五大溼地,呈現女性、家庭所得較高者不僅有較高支付意願而且支付金額亦愈高,不過受到原始起價影響很大,在台南縣則呈現較不穩定的狀況,不過仍強烈受到原始起價的影響。至於評價結果則顯示(1)未剔除零出價抗議樣本時,在台北市,單一、四大、五大溼地保育方案每年WTP之平均值分別為545.130元、388.686元與530.343元,而台南縣則分別為76.856元、51.471元與68.718元;(2)剔除零出價抗議樣本後,在台北市,單一、四大、五大溼地保育方案每年WTP之平均值分別為900.934元、653.086元與861.759元,而台南縣,則分別為128.467元、85.366元與108.943元。不過上述單一、四大與五大溼地保育方案的評價結果,在台北市僅是分別在63.56%、60.63%、57.93%主觀供給機率下的結果,而台南縣則分別為58.53%、47.42%、42.21%主觀供給機率下的結果。|
Wetlands are widely recognized as a transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic systems. If wetlands can be used wisely, they usually provide multifunctional values, including those related to the ecosystem, economy and landscape. However, if wetland policies are not approved by the public, they will be difficult to function well. Therefore, this study adopts the "people-oriented" perspective and survey techniques to analyze wetland conservation attitudes and valuation among residents in Taipei city and Tainan prefecture. Furthermore, this study compares conservation attitudes and wetland valuation of respondents in wetland areas (Taipei Gwan-Do and Tainan Chi-Gu) and non-wetland areas. Attitudes and valuation of respondents with regard to the single-, four-, and five-wetland conservation projects are explored as well. On the assumption that respondents give true answers to the questionnaires, research findings are as follows: In terms of wetland conservation intent, Taipei respondents show obviously greater intent than their counterparts in Tainan prefecture, and respondents from non-Chi-Gu wetland areas show obviously greater intent than respondents from Chi-Gu wetland areas. In Taipei, those variables which have significant relationships with wetland conservation intent include gender, wetland perception and input intent. Those who are female, have positive perception and involvement intent tend to show greater conservation intent. In Tainan, those variables which have significant relationships are age, education, occupation, familiarity with wetlands, involvement experience and involvement intent. Those who are younger, with higher education, with white-collar jobs have more positive conservation attitudes. However, those who have greater familiarity, involvement experience and intent tend to have less positive conservation attitudes. In terms of wetland valuation, from the results of Probit, Logit, or OLS analyses, Taipei respondents who are female, with higher family income tend to demonstrate greater willingness-to-pay (WTP) and greater amount of payment, with a strong impact of the starting point. In terms of Tainan, the results are not stable, however, they are still affected by the starting point. The valuation results are as follows: (1) Including the protest zeros samples, in Taipei, the WTP per year of the single-, four-, and five-wetland conservation projects are NT$545.130, 388.686, and 530.343, respectively. The WTPs in Tainan are 76.856, 51.471, and 68.718. (2) Excluding the protest zeros samples, in Taipei, the WTP per year of the single-, four-, and five-wetland conservation projects are 900.934, 653.086, and 861.759. The WTPs in Tainan are 128.467, 85.366, and 108.943. The valuation of the above wetland conservation projects are based on 63.56%, 60.63%, and 57.93% objective probability in Taipei, and 58.53%, 47.42%, and 42.21% objective probability in Tainan, respectively.