|Abstract: ||在現代都市生活中,為了達到安全舒適與便利,經常需要配置許多都市服務設施來提供必要的服務,然而這些設施卻未必能讓所有人都樂意接受。一般而言,會在人們心目中留下清楚圖像的環境多半是值得回憶或為人所津津樂道的,這些意象通常都是正面的。雖然過去的受害經驗也可能在人們的腦海中留下不可抹滅的印象,但人們通常會試著淡忘這些不好的經驗,因此都市服務設施不論具有正面或負面的效果,是否均會在居民對空間的認知結構中形成如「都市意象」般的設施意象? 環境意象的掌握是環境規劃與管理中一項極為重要的課題,意象既是個人對其所具有空間知識的有意義選擇,其形式必然是被賦予價值的結果,換句話說,由於人對環境的理解是透過知覺作用進行的,因此環境認知與環境意象的研究不但涉及了環境的實質元素、事件,更包含了個人或群體的情感屬性。因此,本研究即是希望從環境態度與環境認知的角度來了解民眾對都市服務設施主觀認知的社會事實,並利用意象圖的方式來探究居民對都市服務設施的認知結構及其所代表的意義。 本研究整合了環境態度與認知圖的繪圖技巧,以面訪的方式對1997年設籍於台北市的242位居民進行調查,研究成果可歸納成以下七點: 1.認知是將環境知覺內化的過程,而意象則是有意義選擇的結果。 2.影響環境行為的變數包括了資訊、經驗、環境態度、動機、領域性與個人屬性,且各項因子之間又會相互影響,呈現出一種複雜的網狀結構。 3.意象建構的過程會受到外界資訊的引導與暗示,但意象的內容並不會受到影響。 4.都市服務設施是公共設施的代名詞,且幾乎都是指對日常生活具有正面效果的設施,如果不是經常受到環境的刺激,並不會在意象圖中特別強調具有鄰避效果的設施。 5.商業、服務業設施是形成都市服務設施意象的最重要元素,但都市服務設施意象的內容則隨著空間範圍的大小而使得各類設施的重要程度有所不同。 6.都市服務設施的意象在空間中的分布具有集中的趨勢,並傾向於將具有地方特色或當地象徵的設施表現出來。 7.影響因子與設施意象之間的關係很難以單純的調查分析方法加以說明,因為受訪者在意象圖上所表現的每一個設施意象都是環境行為的選擇結果,而意象圖的繪製則是各種影響因子不斷相互作用之後的結果。|
In order to secure the good quality of safety, amenity, and convenience in modern cities, we need to allocate various urban service facilities to offer essential urban functions. However, these facilities are not necessarily welcomed by all people. In general, if an environmental image is clearly imprinted in people's minds, it is usually an environment worthy of remembering or applauding. Although previous experiences of environmental pressures could render a deep impression, people always try to forget these bad experiences. One may wonder that, whether urban service facilities have a positive or negative effect, will they impose such a "facility image" as an "urban image" in people's cognitive structures? Understanding environmental images is an important issue in environmental planning. Since an image is a person's meaningful choices regarding spatial knowledge, its form must be the result of value assignment. In other words, because humans' understanding of the environment is through perception, the study of environmental cognition and image not only involves physical elements of the environment, but also personal or group affective attributes. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to explore people's subjective cognition regarding urban service facilities from the perspective of environmental attitudes and cognition. Furthermore, this study adopts the image mapping approach to exploring the cognitive structure and meaning of urban service facilities. By studying both environmental attitudes and facility image maps, this research employed a face-to-face interview of 242 Taipei citizens in 1997. The research findings include: 1. Cognition is the internalization of environmental perception, whereas an image is the result of meaningful choices. 2. Factors influencing environmental behavior at lease include information, experience, environmental attitudes, motives, territory, and personal attributes. Moreover, these factors interact and usually form a network. 3. The process of image building will be guided and influenced by information from outside. However, the content of the image will not be affected. 4. Urban service facilities are synonymous with public facilities. Furthermore, urban service facilities are almost those facilities with positive effects. On the other hand, if the environment does not affect people, the image of NIMBY facilities will not be emphasized in people's facility image maps. 5. Commercial and service facilities are the most important factors in organizing urban service facility maps. However, the content of urban facility image displays different importance in proportion to the spatial scale. 6. Urban service facility images have the tendency of being spatially concentrated. Furthermore, these images are inclined to displaying spatial characteristics or local images of these facilities. 7. Because the facility image is the result of individual environmental behavior choices, the relationship between factors and facility images is not easy to be explained using simple survey analyses. Furthermore, the drawing of facility image maps is the result of interactions among different factors.