|Abstract: ||都會紀元的來臨,不僅代表過多人口的集中消費,更可能因此造成局部資源的耗竭,而在環境連鎖反應下形成更大的生態危機,有鑑於此,本研究建立在前二年整合型計畫之研究成果,藉由台中都會區永續發展指標與生態足跡之分析,探討土地資源永續利用之相關議題,作為提供都市蔓延歷程中問題預警及解決問題的偵測方向,以進一步檢視都會區永續性之意涵,本研究成果摘要如下: 1.台中都會區永續發展指標因區域尺度、整體性質、機能差異的不同,應該從消費城市、生活機能、地方特色的觀點及台中都會區於中部區域甚至台灣發展過程之定位與位階,來研擬永續發展指標。就整體趨勢而言,環境向度為台中都會區邁向永續發展歷程中最不容被忽視的面向;就七大指標群而言,永續經濟發展之重要性僅次於永續資源保育;就四十一個指標項而言,排名前30%的指標項大都集中於永續經濟發展與城鄉永續發展兩組指標群,顯示出都會區強大的消費特性與城鄉永續發展之重要。 2.本研究以排名前30%的指標項作為永續發展個別指標之偵測,以十年年期的時間表述,評估該指標項近十年來之永續發展趨勢。結果顯示台中都會區每人享有公園綠地面積逐漸邁向永續發展,而失業率、大眾運輸系統使用率、每人每日固態廢棄物產出量則逐漸邁向不永續發展,其他指標項如農業生產面積、平均薪資成長率、工業用地開發面積及地方財政赤字指標值則尚無法判斷其發展趨勢。 3.台中都會區歷年生態赤字變化呈現逐年緩慢增加的趨勢,說明台中都會區是否邁向永續發展與人口是否大量集中有關係;而台中都會區每人可取得資源越來越少及消費行為導致生態足跡自1991年起逐年增加,有逐漸朝向不永續的情形。另一方面,1997年台中都會區之生態足跡超過行政面積高達119倍,已接近倫敦、溫哥華等大都市的水準。 4.台中都會區永續性分析中,生態足跡的確使永續發展指標更具體化,而台中都會區漸有邁向不永續發展之危機,最大原因之一為人口每隔一個循環即大量湧入台中都會區。 5.台中都會區永續發展面臨的困境包括:經濟優先下,導致生態貿易、牛仔式經濟產生;共有地悲劇與環境競爭力衰落,形成環境弱勢;環境遲延效果,導致社會城鄉背離。|
The New Age of the metropolitan era represents the concentrated consumption of over population and hence causes partly resource depletion. As a result, the ecological crisis will be induced. Therefore, based on the analysis of sustainable indicators and ecological footprint, this research advocates the pre-cautious principle and proposes solution directions to evaluate the sustainability of Taichung metropolitan area. Major findings are as follow: 1. Because of different scale, characteristics, and functional differences, Taichung metropolitan area should develop its sustainable indicators from the perspectives of consumptive cities, living functions, local characteristics, and urban hierarchies. As a whole, the environmental dimension is regarded as the most critical factor in achieving the sustainability in Taichung metropolitan area. As to the seven sustainable indicator clusters, sustainable resource conservation is the most important cluster, followed by sustainable economic development cluster. As to the 41 sustainable indicator items, most of the top 30% indicators have to do with sustainable economic development and sustainable urban-rural sustainable development. 2. The top 30% sustainable indicator items were adopted to evaluate the sustainability in Taichung metropolitan area, using a ten-year data set. Results show that parks per person in Taichung metropolitan area is an indicator that is toward sustainable development. Jobless rate and the usage rate of mass rapid transit, and solid waste per day per person in Taichung metropolitan area are away from sustainable development. The other indicators (e.g., farm production area, average salary growth rate, developed area of industrial zones, and local fiscal deficit) cannot be judged due to the limit of the data source. 3. The ecological footprint of Taichung metropolitan area shows a gradual increase trend, which indicates a strong linkage between the sustainability and population concentration. Due to the depleted resources and the increasing consumption behavior, the ecological footprint has increased since 1991, which indicates unsustainable development. On the other hand, the 1997 ecological footprint of Taichung metropolitan area is 119 times of that of its administrative area and is close to that of London and Vancouver. 4. On the sustainability study of Taichung metropolitan area, the ecological footprint analysis does help to make the sustainable indicator analysis more concrete. The reason why Taichung metropolitan area is unsustainable may be due to the population cycle. 5. The dilemma facing the sustainable development of Taichung metropolis includes: ecological deficit and cowboy economy due to economic-oriented policies; environmental degradation due to the-tragedy-of-the-commons syndrome and the decreasing environmental competition; the discrepancy between urban and rural development due to the delay effect of environmental damages.