|Abstract: ||本研究的主要目的在(1)探討美國教育當局在解除教師僱傭契約時的原則與程序,以及法院對這些議題的看法。(2)調查我國教師對其工作權益的了解程度。 本研究主要發現如下: (1)美國教師僱傭契約主要有二類型:長聘契約與試用契約。解約係指開除長聘教師,或在試用期間開除試用教師;不續約則指試用契約期滿後,不繼續聘任而言。 (2)解約必須根據法定解約事由,踐履正當程序方得為之。解約事由主要包括不道德、不服從、不能勝任、怠忽職責與強制裁員等。 (3)倘若契約的終止侵害到自由或財產利益,教師即得要求正當程序的保障。解約程序的要件主要有事先通知與聽證二部分。 (4)試用契約除了在契約期間外,並不涉及財產利益的問題,原則上不受正當程序的保障。不過,如果不續約使試用教師沾染惡名、喪失將來的工作機會或侵害其憲法權利,則可能創設自由利益,試用教師因此享有類似長聘教師的程序保障。 (5)本調查顯示我國教師對自身權益不甚至了解,但兼任行政職務之教師比不兼任者更了解自己的工作權益。|
The major purposes of the study were (1) to provide an overview of the causes for which a teacher may be terminated and of the procedures that must be followed in America. (2) to survey whether or not the teachers in Taiwan were familiar with their employment rights and duties. The major findings are as following: (1) The American teacher is generally employed under one of two types of contracts: a probationary contract or a tenure contract. Dismissal refers to the termination for cause of any tenured teacher or a probationary teacher within the contract period. Nonrenewal is the termination of a probationary contract at the end of the contract period. (2) Causes for dismissal mainly include insubordination, immorality, incompetency, neglect of duty and reduction in force. (3) A teacher is entitled to due process if dismissal impairs a property or liberty interest. When a liberty or property right is involved, due process of law requires that a teacher be timely notified of charges and provided with an opportunity for a hearing. (4) Probationary employment does not implicate a property interest, except within the contract period. A probationary teacher, however, may establish a liberty right, if nonrenewal causes a stigma, forecloses the opportunity for future employment or involves constitutional rights. (5) The survey indicates that teachers with administrative functions and those without are not familiar with their employment rights and duties, the former, however, know them more than the latter.