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    Title: 重塑兩岸關係:利益、接觸與政治認同
    Forging New Cross-Strait Relations: Economic Incentive, Social Engagement, and Political Identity
    Authors: 曾于蓁
    Contributors: 陳陸輝
    曾于蓁
    Keywords: 兩岸關係
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-10-01 13:41:47 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 經濟能否影響政治?接觸能否改變認知?兩岸關係提供我們一個極好的場域檢視這政治學的核心問題。從來沒有兩個政治實體,存在這麼深刻的認同歧異,卻發展出密切的經貿互賴和人際往來。自2000年代中期以降,大陸開始放鬆軍事施壓與國際圍堵,全力擴大貿易、交流以及觀光旅遊,希望藉此施惠臺灣民眾,轉圜臺灣民意,瓦解臺灣對統一的抗拒。然而,歷次民調顯示臺灣民眾並沒有因此傾向統一的趨勢;反而,臺灣人認同不斷攀高。這樣的矛盾似乎意味著大陸對臺政策的失敗,理應停止惠臺措施。不過,筆者認為總體的資料分析忽略了大陸對臺政策針對不同階層、團體「區別對待」的特性,若欲瞭解目標群體是否發生態度的轉變,必須針對那些身處最大曝露交流、涉及最深交流利益者,探討其是否發生預期之變化。筆者延續碩士論文對於大陸邀訪臺灣青年政策的政治影響之研究、長期對於大陸臺商及臺商子女之關注,以及大陸近年著力甚深的對臺農漁採購政策進行分析,以四個易感團體:「臺商」、「臺商子女」、短期青年交流中的「臺灣青年」與臺南學甲「契作」漁民,考察當前兩岸的兩大重要交流機制—「經濟利益」與「社會接觸」,分析這二種機制對於臺灣人政治態度及認同立場的可能影響。

    本論文研究發現,經濟上的實質獲益雖然重要,是雙方形成合作聯盟的契機,然而這僅是基於利益或權衡下的選擇,若未能進一步導引向「改變印象」,依然未必能夠發揮政治影響。臺商在開放西進初期,大陸提供廉價的的土地、人力、稅制等優惠,吸引大量臺商前往對岸投資;兩岸青年交流中的臺灣青年,也是因大陸提供極優惠價格的參訪/旅遊營隊,吸引學生報名參訪;而臺南學甲契作漁民是大陸對臺農漁採購政策下的獲益群體,以上三者皆是受到「經濟利益」機制的影響。然而,臺商在「社會接觸」機制層面上,雙方頻繁交往卻完全不受控制的發展結果,導致觀感因人而異、雙方印象因此有好有壞;兩岸青年交流中的臺灣青年和臺南學甲契作漁民則是受中國大陸特殊安排,接觸大陸相關人事物的積極面,並且在互動中培養共同目標,使得這些群體可以導正偏見、產生正向的政治態度。對照另一受到「社會接觸機制」影響的臺商子女,其在臺商子弟學校一方面因節制與大陸當地社會的互動,並且安排與臺灣同步的教材、師資和返臺旅遊,增強了臺校學生的內群體界線,研究顯示可達到維持住臺灣人認同的效果。

    綜合以上研究,筆者認為發揮政治影響的關鍵,先要有「經濟獲利」,還要有「印象改善」,兩者缺一不可;而前者有賴資源的長久投入,並將利益落實至基層;後者則既要接觸、又要控制,才能創造政治態度上的「印象良好」結果。放大到整體的兩岸關係來看,筆者認為目前兩岸最大的癥結,即是經濟利益層面上存在受益不均、社會接觸層面不具有共有認同,因此,經濟社會整合過程中,並不會單純因「讓利」和「接觸」而使臺灣民眾具有傾向對中國大陸友善之政治態度,臺灣/大陸界線仍然難以消弭。就此而言,兩岸關係距離中國大陸所期待的政治統一終極目標,仍有一段遙遠的道路。
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    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    東亞研究所
    97260502
    102
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097260502
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[東亞研究所 ] 學位論文

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