運用軍隊、聯絡會黨、執行暗殺，都曾經是中國革命運動的主要暴力工具。但吸引同時代人目光的暗殺事件，卻鮮少成為後世史學家的研究焦點。近代中國頻繁的政治暗殺事件，以晚清革命黨人的活動首開序幕，其間黨人更曾挪用無政府主義（anarchism）話語進行宣傳。然而，清廷覆滅，民國肇建，中國仍無法告別革命。假「革命」之名行使的政治暗殺，遂層出不窮，也常淪為革命者內鬥的工具。因此，本文試圖挑戰革命史觀對政治暗殺事件的敘述，指出宣傳文本上的修辭，和行使暗殺時所考量的策略，不盡可混為一談；並強調討論相關問題時，至少有兩個不同卻又攸關的層面。就政治暴力現象而言，頻繁的政治暗殺事件萌發於晚清，迄1949年南京國民黨政權傾覆前夕而未絕。但就「革命話語」而論，革命黨人倡說暗殺、討論暗殺，直到1920年代才因主流革命理論的改變，遂在口頭上將之揚棄。綜合觀之，它既是與政治脫序攸關，也曲折地反映出中國社會對政治「現代」的想像，相關政治暴力的課題，仍值得學界作更細緻的考察。 Mobilizing armed forces, collaborating with secret societies, and attempting to assassinate were once the main violent maneuvers in Chinese revolutions. However, assassinations, which often drew much attention during their time, were rarely discussed by later scholars. Modern China’s rampant cases of political assassinations were initiated by the Chinese revolutionists in the Late-Qing period. They took advantage of the discourse of “anarchism” for the purpose of propaganda. Even after the founding of Republican China, revolution never stopped. Many attempts of assassination were done in the name of “revolution” and were also used as a tool for cnternal strives. This article would like to challenge discussions on political assassinations as found in many studies done from the view-point of revolution and would like to point out that there was a big difference between the discourse of propaganda and of actual strategies used in attempting assassinations. This article would point out that in dealing with this topic there are two levels involved. The first level concerns political violence: political assassinations germinated in the Late-Qing period and had never stopped even on the eve of the collapse of the Nanjing Kuomintang regime. The second level concerns the discourse used by the revolutionists; they advocated assassinations and discussed assassinations until the 1920s when they finally agreed to forsake such practices. In short, political assassinations were not only linked with political discord, but also reflected the concept of modern politics in the eyes of Chinese revolutionists . Issues about political violence deserve further studies.