環境影響評估制度強調在開發活動進行之前，經由評估、審議程序之進行，結合開發單位、地區居民、開發計畫核定機關及環境保護機關之知識、責任與關切，尋求最合理妥當亦最能預防公害、保護環境之開發方案。該制度的特色為調查、審議程序之公開，其核心則為關係人士之參與。我國自民國84年正式全面施行環境影響評估制度，觀察相關經環境影響評估的案例，發現民眾對現有環境影響評估公開的程序、民眾參與的管道等多不了解與不信任，而的不免有抗爭事件的發生。本文除透過經第二階段環境影響評估之開發案的案例分析，瞭解目前環境影響評估制度中，民眾參與機制於設計面與執行面的相關問題，同時透過對環境影響評估個案中，參與的機關與民眾代表之深度訪談，佐以國外文獻，希冀對環境影響評估制度中民眾參與機制提出政策性的建議。 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) provides an effective mechanism for prevention of potential environmental pollution and for coordination in collaborative decision-making situations. The desire to stop cases of improper development has made EIA a required mechanism in many countries. The essence of EIA is an opening procedure of investigation, assessment, deliberation, and citizen participation. Despite the fact that there has been an official design of citizen participation in Taiwanese EIA system since 1995, the design remains unpopular and untrustworthy in our society due to problems such as inefficiency, political complexity, etc.In this paper, we explore fundamental problems of the current design of citizen participation in the EIA system and describe our aims in managing these problems via thorough studies of thirty EIA cases and a public opinion interview of interest parties. We focus on a more open and more effective process for operating citizen participation and then suggest future directions based on results of the interview.