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    Title: 從視覺科技看清末纏足
    Other Titles: Visual Technologies and the Representation of Footbinding in Late-Qing China
    Authors: 苗延威
    Miao, Yen-Wei
    Contributors: 社會系
    Keywords: 纏足/反纏足;視覺科技;攝影;X光;博覽會
    footbinding/anti-footbinding;visual technologies;exhibitions;radiography;photography
    Date: 2007-03
    Issue Date: 2014-12-27 14:34:43 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 發展數百年的纏足文化,在清末民初短短的數個世代裡,從傳統的文化體面,遽然轉變為必須洗刷的國族/文化污名。在這個歷史過程裡,本文認為,激起知識分子「野蠻焦慮」的國際視線,扮演了重要的角色。主要來自於西方人的國際視線,藉由視覺科技配備,形成一種架構在權力關係上的「帝國的凝視」,卸除和穿透了視覺客體的遮蔽。為了追溯纏足污名的文化建構,本文首先分析了現代新聞報導、臨床醫學、攝影術、X光掃描,以及博覽會於十九世紀下半葉隨著帝國主義進入中國之後,如何觀看、揭露和呈現中國女性的小腳。其次,本文指出,在「帝國的凝視」之下,纏足被西方知識菁英建構成為「視覺知識域」上的某種邪惡存在:在病理學建構上,纏足意味著生物有機體(個人)和社會有機體(國族)的骯髒和病癥;在殖民人類學建構上,纏足被視為一種野蠻民族的記號;以及,在美學建構上,纏足被形容成一種不忍卒睹的醜惡品味。視覺科技的威力不止在於讓西方公眾看到這些被建構的邪惡存在,更在於使中國人透過帝國主義的視線,看到「自身的邪惡」,並在清末民初的國族認同建構過程中,夾帶了這個恥辱感,使得漢民族的纏足轉化成為中國人共同背負的文化污名;這些負面的文化建構,不僅加深了中國知識/權力菁英的國族危機意識和焦慮感,也賦予了集體行動必要的情緒動員能量和論述框架。
    In modem textual and visual narratives, ”footbinding” symbolizes China's backwardness and barbarism. Traditionally viewed as a symbol of chastity, ethnicity, feminity, and the cultivated taste of the higher classes, the millennium-long practice of footbinding dramatically declined as soon as it was seen as a cultural stigma and accordingly evoked new intellectuals' ”anxiety of being (seen as) barbarian” at the turn of the twentieth century. This article argues that ocularcentric modernity played a significant role in the process whereby the civility/barbarism discourses about footbinding became reversed. It examines how the hegemonic technologies of seeing-such as journalism, photography, radiography (X-ray), and exhibitions-challenged the cultural invisibility of footbinding and visualized what had been concealed under the binding cloths. Under the ”imperial gaze,” eventually, footbinding was constructed, represented, and displayed by foreign (and later, native) power elites as something evil, in accordance with the episteme of vision: pathologically, disease and filthiness; colonial-anthropologically, markers of barbarism; and aesthetically, hideous taste in beauty. These constructions reflected the scientific interest in human bodies, especially colonial bodies, of the imperial nations of the nineteenth century, invented a ”convertible” image of the ”modern” body for those who desired an identity of modernity, and contributed to the formation of an indigenous movement that sought to abolish the shameful spectacle of footbinding.
    Relation: 近代史研究所集刊, 55, 1-45
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[社會學系] 期刊論文

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