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    Title: 論跨境資訊流通與資料保護之兩難與平衡─從TPP下的資料當地化議題出發
    The Dilemma and Balance between Trans-border Data Flow and Data Protection on Issue of Data Localization in The TPP
    Authors: 黃致豪
    Huang, Chih Hao
    Contributors: 蔡孟佳
    黃致豪
    Huang, Chih Hao
    Keywords: 電子商務
    資料保護
    泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴協定
    必要性測試
    e-commerce
    data protection
    TPP
    Necessity Test
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-02-03 10:16:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 隨著全球電子商務的蓬勃發展,為在資訊流通與資料保護之間取得平衡,跨境資訊流動議題在國際經貿整合中往往也成為各國談判的焦點之一。其中,TPP中各國更進一步地處理「當地設立伺服器」議題,並提案將以「必要性測試」作為各國施行該措施之前提,本文遂就該測試在相關措施下之運作進行探討,並針對我國未來制度上與國際接軌之方向提出建議。
    本文透過文獻分析法,歸納出必要性測試的評估過程中有「替代性措施對政策目標之貢獻程度」、「政策目標或價值之重要性」、「對國際貿易之限制性」幾個重要因素,另外在針對澳洲措施的分析中,有司法管轄權、技術、國際間合作狀況與行政成本,需納入考量之因素。然而,我國法制中尚未有更具體的管制措施,而經貿協議中僅止於承認彼此之資訊流通管制規範。未來或可參考澳洲之做法,同時由前歸納之因素評估該作法之必要性。
    The issue of trans-border data flow has been treated as one of those significant trade liberalization topics while global electronic commerce continues to surge and countries are striving to build common ground on the balance between data flow as well as data protection. Among these efforts of trade integration, “necessity test” was proposed when the members within TPP go further to negotiate whether the regulation of “localization data center” should be banned or not. In this article, we will conduct analysis toward how will the test work with potentially disputing measures and provide suggestions for Taiwan’s legislation to be geared to international treaties and standards.
    Through documentary analysis, factors evaluated against possible alternative measures when exercising necessity tests are summed up as contribution made by the compliance measure to the enforcement of the law or regulation at issue, the importance of the common interests or values protected by that law or regulation, and the accompanying impact of the law or regulation on imports or exports. Furthermore, as what has been shown by analyzing the Australian measure, we concluded that jurisdiction, techniques, international cooperation and administrative costs should also be taken into account. However, due to the lack of more practical measures and the topic in Taiwan’s concluded trade agreements is still in its infancy, I suggested that related authority can take the Australia’s measure as an example on basis of the above-mentioned factors.
    Reference: 壹、 中文書籍
    1. 王澤鑑(2010)。侵權行為法。元照出版社。
    2. 齊愛民(2009年1月)。拯救信息社會中的人格-個人信息保護法總論」。北京:北京大學出版社。
    貳、 中文期刊論文
    1. 任文瑗、范錚強與許通安(2006)。資訊隱私侵害行為意圖之研究。資訊、科技與社會期刊,第六卷,第二期,77-100。
    2. 朱浩與盧煒竣(2012年11月)。跨太平洋夥伴協定服務貿易相關議題未來發展觀察與研析期末報告。經濟部商業司商業發展科技研究能量建置計畫。
    3. 李超(2008)。21世紀的電子商務與國際貿易。市場論壇,第4期,34-35
    4. 邱祥榮(2001)。論美國網路個人資訊隱私保護型態之轉變,全國律師,12月號,80-91。
    5. 邱惠雯(2002)。網際網路使用行為之限制-從隱私權保護觀之探討。國立中正大學犯罪防治研究所碩士論文,未出版,嘉義縣。
    6. 林雅惠(2004)。資訊隱私權之重塑-以行動商務為例。科技法學評論,一卷一期, 93-122。
    7. 邱琳雅(2008年10月)。德國聯邦個人資料保護法。財金書房, 60-64。
    8. 周天泰(2003年5月)。加拿大醫療資訊電子化與隱私保護的新發展。科技法律透析,第15卷第5期,24-29。
    9. 周逸濱(2008年6月)。行政機關保護法制之研究-以日本法為比較中心。台北大學法律學系碩士論文,未出版,新北市。
    10. 周慧蓮(2004年1月)。資訊隱私保護爭議之國際化。月旦法學雜誌,第104期,112-132。
    11. 香港特別行政區政府(2013年3月)。電子健康紀錄互通的願景,醫健通訊,第一期。
    12. 郭戎晉(2008)。日本「個人資料保護管理體系」與「隱私標章」制度之初探。科技法律透析,20:12,2-12。
    13. 陳香梅與黃明聖(2004年1月)。從電子商務看傳統所得稅制度的適用性-跨國分析。經社法制論叢,第33期,147-178。
    14. 黃苓禎(2014)。雲端個人健康資訊系統專法芻議-以平衡、有效之隱私保護為核心,國立中央大學產業經濟研究所碩士論文,未出版,桃園縣。
    15. 經濟部工業局(2013年11月)。隱私保護成熟及新興國家隱私權法規分析研究。102年度專案計畫執行成果報告。
    16. 劉育雯(2005)。資訊社會個人資料保護之研究-以日本個人資訊保護法為中心。輔仁大學法律學研究所碩士論文,未出版,新北市。
    17. 蕭奕弘(2012年12月)。個人資料保護法之研究。司法院司法研究年報,第29輯,行政類第一篇。
    18. 熊愛卿(2000)。網際網路個人資料保護之研究。台灣大學法律學研究所博士論文,未出版,台北市。
    19. 簡榮宗(1998)。網路上資訊隱私權保護問題之研究。東吳大學法律研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
    參、 中文網站
    1. 黃耀賞(2014年1月)。馬來西亞個人資料保護法於2013年11月15日正式施行。資策會科技法律研究所,取自: https://stli.iii.org.tw/ContentPage.aspx?i=6441
    2. 簡榮宗(2006年6月25日)。隱私權的歷史。財團法人民間司法改革基金會,取自:http://www.jrf.org.tw/newjrf/rte/myform_detail.asp?id=753
    3. Victor Lin(2013年11月18日)。一至千萬的藝術-如何養成支撐網路巨量交易的伺服器艦隊。有物報告,取自:http://yowureport.com/?p=8944
    肆、 日文部分
    1. 日本總務省行政管理局,行政機関等個人情報保護4法案の概要,取自:http://www.soumu.go.jp/gyoukan/kanri/kenkyu_f.htm
    2. 日本裁判所,裁判所の情報公開・個人情報保護について,取自: http://www.courts.go.jp/about/siryo/johokokai/index.html
    伍、 英文期刊、論文與書籍
    1. Berry, R., & Reisman, M. (2012, November), Policy Challenges of Cross-Border Computing, Journal of International Commerce and Economics, 4:2.
    2. Brgrave , L. A. (2010), Privacy and Data Protection in International Perspective, Stockholm Institute for Scandinavian Law, pp.166-200.
    3. Business Roundtable (2012), The growing threat of local data server requirement.
    4. Capling, A., Ravenhill, J. (2011), Multilateralising Regionalism: What Role for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement?, The Pacific Review, 24:5, 553-575..
    5. Chander, A., & Le, U. P. (2014, April), Breaking the Web: Data Localization vs. the Global Internet, Emory Law Journal.
    6. Cisco Public (2011), Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2011-2016, Cisco White Paper.
    7. Cooper, D. M. (1984), Transborder Data Flow and the Protection of Privacy: the Harmonization of Data Protection Law, The Fletcher Forum, Summer, 336-352.
    8. Dechert LLP (2007, January), Legitimising Cross-Border Data Flows by the Self-Assessment Method: Different Approaches throughout Europe, Issue 1.
    9. Farrel, H. (2003), Constructing the International Foundations of E-commerce-The EU-U.S. Safe Harbor Arrangements, International Organization 57, Spring, 277-306.
    10. Fishman, W. L. (1980, Summer), Introduction to Transborder Data Flows, Standford Journal of International Law 16:1.
    11. Fraser, R., & Willison, D. (2009, September), Tools for De-identification of Personal Health Information.
    12. Graham, D. (2010, February), Trans-border data flow legislation is back on the agenda, Commercial Quarterly, Summer Edition, 49-50.
    13. Hill, J. F. (2014, July), The Growth of Data Localization Post-Snowden: Analysis and Recommendations for U.S. Policymakers and Industry Leaders, Lawfare Research Paper Series, Vol.2, No.3.
    14. Hoepner , P., Strick, L., & Löhe M. (2012), Historical Analysis on European Data Protection Regulations, Fraunhofer Institut FOKUS.
    15. Howse, R. (2000), Managing the Interface between International Trade and the Regulatory State: What Lessons Should (and Should Not) Be Drawn from the Jurisprudence of the United States Dormant Commerce Clause, Regulatory Barriers and The Principle of Non-discrimination in World Trade Law, pp. 139-66.
    16. Information Commissioner’s Office (2010, April), Data Protection Act 1988-The Eighth Data Protection Principle and International Data Transfers, Ver.4.
    17. Inside U.S. Trade (2014, July), TPP Countries To Discuss Australian Alternative To Data-Flow Proposal, Vol. 30, No. 27.
    18. Inside U.S. Trade (2014, July), US., Australia make little headway toward resolving differences on data flows, Daily News.
    19. Kalakota, R. (1997), Electronic commerce: A Manager’s Guide, Addison-Wesley, Inc., Raading, Mass.
    20. Kuner, C. (2009), An International legal Framework for Data Protection: Issues and Prospects, Computer Law & Security Review 25, 307-317.
    21. Kuner, C. (2010), Regulation of Transborder Data Flows under Data Protection and Privacy Law: Past, Present and Future, Tilburg University Legal Studies Working Paper No. 016.
    22. Law Office of Kris Klein (2008, September), Applying Canadian Law to Transborder Flows of Personal Information from Canada to United States: A Clarification.
    23. Meltzer, J. (2013), The Internet, Cross-Border Data Flows and International Trade, Issues in Technology Innovation, No. 22.
    24. Norton Rose Fulbright (2014, July), Global Data Privacy.
    25. Nottebohm , O., Manyika, J, Bughin, J.,Chui, M., & Syed A. (2012), Online and Upcoming: The Internet’s Impact on Aspiring Countries, McKinsey & Company.
    26. Novotny, E. J. (1982), Transborder Data Flow Regulation: Technical Issues of Legal Concern, Computer/Law Journal III:106, Spring.
    27. Palmisano, S. J. (2006, May/June), The Globally Integrated Enterprise, Foreign Affairs.
    28. Prosser, W. L., Keeton, W. P., Dobbs, D. B., Keeton, R. E., & Owen, D. G. (5th ed.). (1984). Prosser and Keeton on Torts, West Group.
    29. Schott, J. J., Kotschwar, B., & Muir, J. (2013, January), “Sticking Points in the TPP Negotiations” in Understanding the Trans Pacific Partnership, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    30. Schwartz , P. M. (2009), Managing Global Data Privacy: Cross-Border Information Flows in a Networked Environment, Privacy Projects.
    31. Sellars , C., Easey, A., IPM&T Group, & McDermott Will and Emery UK LLP (2008, April), Electronic health records: data protection issues in Europe, World Data Protection Report.
    32. Silva, A. J. C. (2011, September), Personal Data Protection and Online Service in Latin America, Paper presented at the Meeting of Towards an Internet Free of Censorship: Proposal for Latin America, Buenos Aires.
    33. Spaeth, J. M., Plotkin, M. J., & Sheets, S. C. (2002), The Impact of Canada's Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act on Transnational Business, 4 Vand, J. Ent. L. & Prac.28.
    34. Steward, B. (1999, June), Adequacy of data protection measures: the New Zealand case, Paper presented at the meeting of 12th Privacy Laws and Business Annual International Conference, Cambridge, U.K.
    35. Swire, P. P. (1997), Markets, Self-regulation and Government Enforcement in the Protection of Personal Information, Privacy and Self-Regulation in the Information Age.
    36. Swire, P. P., & Litan, R. E. (1998), None of Your Business: World Data Flows, Electronic Commerce, and the European Privacy Directive, Havard Journal of Law & Technology, Vol.12, No.3, pp.684-702.
    37. Wendy, C., & Jonathan, S. (2014), A Cross-country Study of Cloud Computing Policy and Regulation in Health Care, Paper Presented at the meeting of Twenty Second European Conference on Information System, Tel Aviv.
    38. White &Case LLP (2005, October), Countries at A Glance-Data Privacy.
    39. Wunsch-Vincent, S., & Hold, A. (2011, July), Towards coherent rules for digital trade: building on efforts in multilateral versus preferential trade negotiations, Working Paper No. 2011/64.
    40. Zwass, V. (1996, Fall), Electronic Commerce: Structures and Issues, International Journal of Electronic Commerce,Volume 1, No.1, pp.3-23.
    陸、 英文政府文件
    1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013), Re: De-identification of agency and business resources, Submission to De-identification agency and business resources consultation.
    2. New Zealand Privacy(Cross-border Information)Amendment Act 2010, Part 11A.
    柒、 英文網站
    3. Cumbley, R., & Fisher, A. (2013, July), Asia - Developments in the Scheme for Cross-Border Data Transfers, Technology, Media & Telecommunications News, Retrieved September 29, 2014, from: http://www.linklaters.com/Publications/Publication1403Newsletter/TMT-News-18-July-2013/Pages/Asia-Developments-scheme-cross-border-data-transfers.aspx
    4. Czuprynski, C. N. (2014, June), Japanese data privacy developments - global transfers and privacy notices code, Global Regulatory Enforcement Law Blog, Retrieved September 29, 2014, from: http://www.globalregulatoryenforcementlawblog.com/2014/06/articles/data-security/japanese-data-privacy-developments-global-transfers-and-privacy-notices-code
    5. IT Law Group (n.d.), Mexico’s New Federal Law on the Protection of Personal Data, Retrieved November 25, 2014, from: http://www.itlawgroup.com/resources/articles/98-mexicos-new-federal-law-on-the-protection-of-personal-data
    6. Leong, F. C. (2011, February), Right to Privacy in Malaysia: Do we have it?, LOYARBUROK, Retrieved November 25, 2014, from: http://www.loyarburok.com/2011/02/21/right-to-privacy-in-malaysia-do-we-have-it
    7. Office of the Australian Information Commissioner (2013), Annual Report 2012-13, OAIC(2013), Retrieved November 25, 2014, from: http://www.oaic.gov.au/images/documents/about-us/corporate-information/annual-reports/Annual-report-2012-13/Complete_pdf_AR_2012-13.pdf
    8. Office of the Australian Information Commissioner (n.d.), Information Privacy Principles, Retrieved November 25, 2014, from: http://www.oaic.gov.au/privacy/privacy-act/information-privacy-principles
    9. Office of the Australian Information Commissioner (n.d.), Privacy fact sheet 2: National Privacy Principles, Retrieved November 25, 2014, from: http://www.oaic.gov.au/privacy/privacy-resources/privacy-fact-sheets/other/privacy-fact-sheet-2-national-privacy-principles
    10. Office of the United States Trade Representative (n.d.), Trans-Pacific Partnership: Summary of U.S. Objectives, Retrieved November 24, 2014,from http://www.ustr.gov/tpp/Summary-of-US-objectives
    11. U.S. DEPT. OF STATE (2012), International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, INCSR, Retrieved November 25, 2014, form: http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2012/vol2/184110.htm
    12. WTO, Electronic Commerce, Retrieved September 29, 2014, from: http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/ecom_e/ecom_e.htm
    捌、 GATT/WTO官方文件
    1. Appellate Body Report, Australia – Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon , WT/DS18/AB/R (adopted November 6, 1998)
    2. Appellate Body Report, European Communities – Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos, WT/DS/135/AB/R (adopted April 5, 2001)
    3. Appellate Report, Korea – Measures Affecting Imports of Fresh, Chilled and Frozen Beef, WT/DS/161,169/AB/R (adopted Jan. 10, 2001)
    4. Panel Report, European Communities – Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos, WT/DS/135/R (adopted April 5, 2001).
    5. Panel Report, European Communities-Trade Description of Sardines, WT/DS231/R (adopted October 23, 2002)
    6. Panel Report, United States – Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WT/DS2/R (adopted May 20, 1996).
    7. Panel Report, United States-Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, BISD, 39S/155, September 3, 1991.
    8. Panel report, US-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes, WT/DS406/R (adopted September 2, 2011)
    9. WTO, “Necessity Tests” in the WTO, S/WPDR/W/27, 2003.
    玖、 國際組織文件
    1. OECD (1980), Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data.
    2. OECD (2008), Shaping Policies for the Future of the Internet Economy, OECD Ministerial Meeting.
    3. OECD (2008, June), Broadband and the Economy: Ministerial Background Report 8-9, OECD Doc. DSTI/ICCP/IE(2007)3/FINAL.
    4. OECD (2012), Internet Economy Outlook 2012, OECD Publishing.
    5. OECD (2013, April), Strengthening Health Information Infrastructure for Health Care Quality Governance, Health Policy Studies.
    6. World Bank (2009), Information and Communications for Development 2009: Extending Research and Increasing Impact, The World Bank 2009.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易研究所
    100351035
    103
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100351035
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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