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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/73388
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/73388


    Title: 動力機器進口與近代中國工業化(1910-1937)
    Other Titles: The Import of Prime Movers/Engines and the Development of the China Industry, 1910-1937
    Authors: 侯嘉星
    Ho, Chia-hsing
    Contributors: 歷史系
    Date: 2014-03
    Issue Date: 2015-02-09 15:17:06 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近代中國的經濟發展與機械利用密不可分,且無論技術或設備等大都移植自國外,因此機器進口之起落,適可作為考察近代中國現代化建設與工業發展的指標。由於動力機器如發電機、發動機等,是各種產業、工廠都必須購置的基礎設備,所以能反映整體工業的進展。本文以1910-1937年海關資料統計中之動力機器進口為基礎,探討中國工業發展過程中技術來源與區城差異等課題。分析發現,1920年代以前動力機器進口趨勢與整體機器進口大致相同,不過1920年代以後動力機器進口之比重大幅上升,顯示此時結構轉變,工業部門有長足進展。此時因發電技術成熟,許多工廠揚棄燃煤為主的蒸汽動力,改採柴油發電機或發動機,因此帶動進口高潮。而這些發動機或發電機的來源,都是由歐美國家進口,英、德兩國居首、美國次之,日本雖在中國整體的機器進口中占有重要地位,但在動力機器一項上,卻無法與歐美抗衡,顯示在機器工業技術上,後進國日本尚難在高度技術累積的動力機器領域競爭。進一步由進口區域來看,可以發現華東地區因為燃料運輸便利,且上海洋行林立、所需的機器品牌眾多,成為最主要的機器市場及新式工業的聚集地。過半數的動力機器進口集中於此地,顯示長時間高密度的工業投資所形成的規模經濟,其他區域難與之競爭。再者,東北與華北機器進口數量大致相當,不過東北動力機器占機器比重低於全國平均,華北則高於全國,顯示兩地與華東呈現出不同的工業產業結構。華東、華北與東北各自有其產業結構及不同時期之興衰,這也代表著近代中國工業化的多元發展。 Machines import from other countries has played a prominent role in the development of modern china. Chinese customs had numbered hundreds kinds of machines within the Trade Report, and the most influential of them all was the category of prime movers/engines. As prime movers/engines not only provide basic driving power to various types of factories, and all the factories are required to purchase them, thus the degree of industrial development is being shown. According to the custom's data for 1910-1937, the proportion of imported prime movers/engines increased substantially after 1920's, most of them were imported from England, Germany and the United States. Over 50% of imported prime movers/engines went to East China (Yangtze Delta), which was the highest area, followed by the North China (about 20%) and Manchuria (about 20%). Therefore, Shanghai became China's modern industrial window as well as the most important machines market during early 20th century. In addition, the import of prime movers/engines also revealed different industrial development paths within different regions.
    Relation: 國史館館刊,39, 1-48
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 期刊論文

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