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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/73390
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/73390


    Title: 中國農業機械公司與中國近代農業機械化發展(1943-1949)
    Other Titles: The National Agricultural Engineering Corporation and the Development of Farm Mechanization of Modern China, 1943-1949
    Authors: 侯嘉星
    Ho, Chia-hsing
    Contributors: 歷史系
    Date: 2014-11
    Issue Date: 2015-02-09 15:17:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 20世紀上半葉,中國尚是一個以農業為主的國家,農業改良增產是探討近代中國經濟發展的重要課題。農業改良中又以農業機械化發展最具代表性,通過農業機械化可以結合農業生產與工業技術,溝通近代中國的兩大生產部門。然而戰時及戰後農業機械化發展甚少為人注意,因此本文以成立於戰時的中國農業機械公司為線索,探討其在戰時經營狀況,以及戰後承接聯合國善後救濟總署在華之全國農機擴建事業。不過戰時受限於人力物力,中國農業機械公司的發展有限,僅在人才培育及國內外技術交流上較有成就。戰後則因接收聯總大量物資,包括中國當時急需的機械生產設備,位於上海的總廠落成後,農具生產能力大增,僅上海一地之公司雇員規模曾達到1,700人,是戰後國內機械業首屈一指的大型工廠。中國農業機械公司通過在各省建立分廠,如南京、廣州、柳州等分廠陸續完成投產,以及推廣鐵工舖及活動修理車等簡易維修設備,為農村地區農業機具保修條件奠定先備條件。更有甚者,該公司廣泛培養許多農業機械技術人才,在1949年後仍持續發生作用。總而言之,中國農業機械公司對近代中國農業機械化的貢獻,不在於質的突破,而在於量的擴張,通過機械維修利用的普及建立農業機械化的基礎。
    The National Agricultural Engineering Corporation (NAEC) was a special industrial company with full investment from the Chinese Government, founded during December 1943 in Chongqing, and then relocated to Shanghai in February 1946 after the end of WWII. Initially in 1944, NAEC’s factories produced many kinds of agricultural machinery, especially irrigation equipment (pumps and motors), which was the most important type of farm machinery in early 20th century in China. The NAEC also began experimental manufacture of new agricultural tools. However, the production scale of NAEC in the Chongqing period was small until “General Works” was set up in Shanghai. The major task of NAEC in the Shanghai period was to accept a commission from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), which was to popularize agricultural machinery, and was named “National Service”. In order to achieve this target, NAEC successively built factories and service stations in Nanjing, Guangzhou, Liuzhou, Changsha, and Kaifeng and so on. Furthermore, at end of 1948, the number of employees NAEC’s General Works in Shanghai increased to over 1,500, which meant it was in the top 100 largest companies in the city and even in China. Based on the study of the NAEC, we can understand the development of farm mechanization in modern China, and be able to grasp the difficulties of business during wartime in both WWII and the ensuing Civil War periods.
    Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報,42, 137-186
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 期刊論文

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