Innovation is a prerequisite for every nation and business facing the emergence of a knowledge–based economy and globalization. For small and medium firms in developing countries with limited resources and relatively low national advantage innovation is much more difficult. Government innovation policy, stemming from three sides – supply, demand, and environment, has been shown to play a major role in assisting firms to conduct innovation activities, especially in developing countries. This paper first summarizes recent tends and issues relevant to Taiwan’s innovation structure and policy. Then, considering the present situation of Taiwan, analyzes the effect of government policy and current problems. Recommendations are presented systematically, based upon innovation policy.