本研究針對影響臺灣中老年人主觀幸福感（SWB）的重要因素來建立模型，包括外向性及神經質人格、社會支持，進一步利用多群組結構方程式模型技術，來探討中年人與老年人在模型結構係數上的差異情形。樣本係透過便利取樣方式獲得全臺灣640位中老年人，年齡範圍在45~95歲，平均61.05歲，本研究將296位60歲以上受試者視為老年人，其餘344位視為中年人。在模型適配的情形下發現，整體而言，外向性人格對社會支持及SWB都有顯著的正向效果；神經質人格對社會支持及SWB都有顯著的負向效果；而社會支持對SWB有顯著的正向效果。老年人相對於中年人而言，社會支持對SWB的正向效果有顯著的提高；其餘4條結構係數則不顯著，包括神經質人格對社會支持及SWB的負向效果下降、外向性人格對社會支持的正向效果下降，但對SWB的正向效果上升，雖然變化不顯著，但仍然值得注意。 This study attempted to model important factors that influence subjective well-being (SWB) of the middle-aged and older people in Taiwan, including extraversion, neurotic personality and social support. Multi-samples structural equation model technique was used to investigate the differences between the middle-aged and older people in structural model coefficients. A convenience of sample of 640 participants, 45-95 years of age with a mean age of 61.05 was recruited in Taiwan. There were 296 participants with age 60 and above who were categorized into the older people group. The remaining 344 participants were categorized into the middle-aged group. In general, extraversion personality had significant positive effects on social support and SWB; neurotic personality had significant negative effects on social support and SWB; social support had significant positive effects on SWB. In contrast to the middle-aged people, older people's social support had an increasing effect on SWB. Four structural paths were found to be non-significant, including the decreasing negative effects of neurotic personality on social support and SWB, the decreasing positive effect of extraversion personality on social support, and the increasing effect of extraversion personality on SWB. Despite the nonsignificant findings, the increasing effect of extraversion on SWB remains important for future research attention.