國家考試攸關公務人員素質之良莠，而公務人員為政府之基石，因此國家考試的重要性不言而喻。而口試又是眾多國家考試中的關鍵項目，但目前國家口試仍處於低結構化的狀態，此現象將嚴重地傷害口試之效度。根據研究，結構化口試之效度為非結構化口試之效度的兩倍。是故，推動國家考試口試之結構化，乃是提升口試效度之重要途徑。 無論從實務或研究的角度，口試委員最大的困難在於：如何命題與如何評分。為提昇國家考試口試的品質及效度，應該針對此二議題多加努力。本文從結構化口試的精神出發，主要內容包括：（一）工作分析－了解核心能力；（二）問題形式與內容；（三）定錨評量；（四）面談訓練。期望本文能對未來的口試有所助益。 Public service is the cornerstone of the national government, and the national civil service examination directly contributes to the quality of the civil servants. Hence, strong emphasis has always been placed on the importance of the national civil service examinations, especially on the interview stage. Currently, Taiwan’s civil service examinations interview stage is mostly unstructured, which has seriously harmed the validity of the interview results. According to previous researches, structured interview is twice as valid as unstructured interview. Hence, the fastest way to uplift the validity of the national civil service examination interview stage is the use of structured interview. Two most difficult problems faces by the interviewers are how to formulate the interview questions and subsequently how to score the answers. Therefore, it is rather important to exert more effort on these two issues. This study starts from the main theme of structured interview and cover the following issues: 1. Job analysis--to understand the core abilities of the job, 2. Types and content of questions, 3. Anchored assessment, and 4. Interview training. Results shall serve as guiding principles for future interview processes.