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    Title: 華語文學習信念轉變與歷程:在台歐美外籍生之個案研究
    Chinese Language Learner’s Changing Beliefs and Experiences: Case Study on European and American Students in Taiwan
    Authors: 白玉琪
    Peh, Giok Kee
    Contributors: 招靜琪
    Chao, Chin Chi
    白玉琪
    Peh, Giok Kee
    Keywords: 華語文學習信念
    語言學習歷程
    質性個案研究
    敘事分析
    深入訪談
    Chinese Language Learning Beliefs
    Language Learning Experience
    Qualitative Case Study
    Narrative Analysis
    In-depth Interview
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2015-07-27 11:28:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本質性個案研究旨在從三位歐美外籍留學生的視角了解他們的華語文學習信念,探討他們在台灣留學期間所處的社會文化環境如何改變他們的語言學習信念,以及台灣作為華語文環境所能提供的機會與挑戰。本研究主要透過深入訪談(In-depth Interview),邀請三位來台留學半年至一年的歐美華語文學生敘述自身語言學習歷程,包括他們的個人華語文學習背景、來台緣由與期待、在台華語文學習歷程及信念。歷時半年四次的定期訪談均被錄音,經謄錄為逐字稿、重現(reconstruct)個別故事樣貌後,再依Lieblich等人(1998)提出的敘事分析方法,以整體——內容(Holistic-content)和類別——內容(Categorical-content)之邏輯整理成個別個案,並作為後續跨個案分析的資料依據。結果發現,研究參與者從華語為外語(Chinese as Foreign Language)學習環境,到台灣華語文為第二語言(Chinese as Second Language)學習環境的不同學習階段裡,他們的華語文目標、期待和能力不斷地與社會環境互動,而互動所產生的結果足以鞏固或動搖其舊信念。來台前,研究參與者過往的語言學習經驗和成長環境對於外語學習的觀點,無形中都型塑了他們的華語文學習信念。來台後,他們經歷固有的信念和實際與母語者交際情況之間的落差,衝擊了他們原有的信念,而且覺得自身的華語文使用者身份及所付出的努力難以受當地母語者社交圈之認同。此外,研究參與者的留學經歷也反映出台灣作為華語文學習場域的一些情況,既當他們的華語文能力變強後,才有能力善用台灣華語文環境所提供的學習機會,當他們的華語文能力仍偏弱時,他們一般較難在非正式場域與母語者互動,或從中獲得學習機會,反而需依賴課堂環境為主的學習機會。最後,由於信念會隨著學習歷程波動及變化,面向多元,具動態特質,因此本研究建議未來可選擇某一項議題做更深入的研究,若採取類似BALLI研究信念橫斷面的工具時,還可加入情景及情感面向,探討信念歷時的直斷面。在教學運用上,華語文中心能著手處理外籍華語文學生的行前準備資料,加強對留學生有關語言學習進程的輔導,在師資培訓上也應該注意如何處理初出國留學生在語言學習適應上的調整,以減少留學生因學習期待落差而受到的衝擊。另外也建議常與學習者接觸的當地母語者接受跨文化交際的教育,雙方才能創造合宜的華語文學習環境,促進外籍留學生赴台學習華語文之發展與成效。
    This qualitative case study aims to look into Chinese language learning beliefs from the perspective of three Chinese learners from Europe and America and to explore how the Taiwanese social-cultural environment changes their language learning beliefs, as well as the affordance and challenge Taiwan offers to these international Chinese learners. Three students from Europe and America who have been learning Chinese in Taiwan from six to twelve months respectively are invited to the study and receive four in-depth interviews within six month. Their personal Chinese language learning experiences over the time are narrated and recorded. The data is then analyzed using Holistic-Content and Categorical-Content method proposed by Lieblich et al., (1998). The results shows that, at different learning stages, the interaction of the participants’ Chinese language goals, expectation and proficiency levels with social environment either reaffirms or shakes their beliefs. Before studying in Taiwan, the past language learning experiences as well as the prevailing view of their native community towards foreign language basically constitutes the beliefs of the participants. At the early stage of studying in Taiwan, the gap between their expectations and the actual communication experiences with local native speakers also has critical impacts on their beliefs. The participants would also find that their efforts to make themselves live as Chinese speakers are constantly challenged by the local native community. In this case, Taiwan and its social community as the field for learning Chinese actually provide more opportunities to the learners with higher Chinese proficiency. When proficiency is low, such as at the beginning stages of Chinese proficiency or upon arrival, the participants have great difficulty getting benefits from the target language community; their learning mainly happens in the language learning classroom. It is clear that language learning beliefs is dynamic, multifaceted, and fluctuate from time to time. The study suggests that, specific topic under the multilayered nature of belief should be focused in the future research. Social environments and emotions of students should also be included in BALLI. Finally, to promote the development and effectiveness of foreign students studying in Taiwan, stronger pre-departure briefing, orientation and counseling services are needed to facilitate language development. Teachers also need training on how to reduce the impact of crashed expectations of new foreign students. In addition, local people (i.e., native speakers) who often come into contact with the learners are recommended to develop intercultural communication skills in order to provide the learners with the best possible informal communication experience.
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