English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 11 |  Items with full text/Total items : 89327/119107 (75%)
Visitors : 23826173      Online Users : 153
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/76903
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/76903


    Title: 安眠藥使用型態與其影響因子
    The Patterns of hypnotic use and influencing factors
    Authors: 陳裕婷
    Contributors: 楊建銘
    陳裕婷
    Keywords: 安眠藥物
    用藥心理因素
    集群分析
    hypnotics
    hypnotic-related psychological factors
    cluster analysis
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2015-07-27 11:28:34 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 研究目的:失眠影響國人身心健康甚多,藥物取向治療為當代最廣泛的失眠治療方式。研究顯示許多失眠患者,可藉由短期服用助眠藥物改善失眠,避免個體失眠慢性化,且於停藥後未有任何藥物副作用困擾。然而,臨床上仍觀察到不少個案,對助眠藥物產生依賴,需長期服用助眠藥物,此舉不僅造成醫療資源之浪費,其安全性與有效性仍受爭議。而心理因素在藥物依賴扮演重要的角色,同樣是長期服用助眠藥物,不同的助眠藥物使用者卻可能存有相異的用藥心態,因此助眠藥物使用者的用藥行為以及用藥相關心態,可能會組合成不同的用藥型態,而探討助眠藥物之不同使用型態與其心理機轉,有助於進一步瞭解助眠藥物使用現象。故本研究旨在用量化方法探討助眠藥物使用型態之差異,試圖將不同的助眠藥物使用型態進行分群,並提出可能影響助眠藥物使用型態的相關因子。
    研究方法與結果:本研究招募了272名曾經或目前正在服用助眠藥物的使用者填寫研究問卷,透過對兩個外顯用藥行為變項(用藥總時間、用藥頻率)與六個用藥相關心理變項(對助眠藥物的渴求程度、對助眠藥物的正、負向態度、主觀規範、以及促進、抑制之知覺控制)的集群分析,我們將助眠藥物使用型態分為「慣性使用」、「矛盾依賴」、「控制使用」以及「輔助使用」四種型態。在外顯用藥行為方面,「慣性使用」集群與「矛盾依賴」集群皆展現較長的用藥時間與高頻率的使用,「控制使用」群集與「輔助使用」群集則展現較短的用藥時間與低頻率的使用。然而,四組群集皆展現其獨特的心理特徵。「慣性使用」群集對助眠藥物的渴求程度最強,正向態度比負向態度高,主觀認為重要他人支持自己服用助眠藥物,傾向持續服用助眠藥物;「矛盾依賴」群集呈現對助眠藥物正向與負向態度皆高的矛盾狀態,且主觀認為自己無法控制藥物之使用;「控制使用」群集雖也對助眠藥物出現正向、負向態度皆高的表現,但其可對藥物使用進行控制;「輔助使用」群集的個案對於助眠藥物的負向態度高於正向態度,藥物渴求程度低,且傾向避免使用助眠藥物。多項式邏輯斯回歸的分析結果則進一步顯示年齡較大、失功能睡眠信念問卷分數較高的個案,較容易落入「慣性使用」組;被診斷過情緒疾患、失眠時間較長、睡前激發程度問卷分數較高的個案,較容易落入「矛盾依賴」組;受教育年限較高的個案,較傾向落入「控制使用」組;最後,年紀較輕、失功能睡眠信念問卷分數較低的個案,則容易落入「輔助使用」組。
    結論:本研究結果顯示相似的用藥行為仍有相異的用藥相關心理狀態,且部分心理相關變項可能會影響助眠藥物之使用型態,故推測用藥心理與助眠藥物使用者的特質扮演影響用藥型態的重要因素。此結果可提供臨床工作者,初步了解助眠藥物使用之心理機轉,亦能將其運用於協助不同類型的安眠藥物使用者擬訂減藥處遇。
    Purpose:Insomnia has great impact on people's health in Taiwan. Pharmacological approaches are the most commonly used treatment for insomnia. Although short-term hypnotic use could improve sleep, however some patients use hypnotics for a prolonged period of time and have difficulty to discontinue using them. This would lead to great cost of the individuals and societies. Psychological factors have been found to play an essential role in the long-term use of other substances. Clinical observation also showed that there were individual differences in the psychological aspects of medication use in spite of similar medication use behaviors. Therefore, it is possible to use hypnotic-related behaviors and psychological factors to categorize hypnotic users in order to further the understanding the mechanism underlying chronic hypnotic use. The purpose of this research is to identify hypnotic use patterns by exploratory quantitative method and the characteristics associated with different hypnotic usage patterns.
    Methods and Results: 272 previous or current hypnotic users were recruited to complete a package of questionnaires. Through cluster analysis with two explicit medication behavior variables (total duration of hypnotic use, frequency of hypnotic use) and six hypnotic-related psychological variables (craving for hypnotic, positive and negative attitudes towards hypnotic, subjective norm, facilitating and inhibiting perceived behavioral control), four hypnotic usage patterns were identified, which were “habitual use”, “paradoxical dependence”, “controlling use”, and “supplementary use”. In terms of explicit medication behaviors, “habitual use” and “paradoxical dependence” clusters both show longer time and higher frequency of hypnotic use. On the other hand, “controlling use” and “supplementary use” clusters showed similar medication use behaviors with shorter duration and lower frequency of hypnotic use. In addition, the four clusters exhibited different psychological profiles. Users in “habitual use” cluster have strongest craving for hypnotic, higher positive than negative attitude toward hypnotic use, and believe that significant others support their medication behavior. Users in “paradoxical dependence” cluster showed paradoxical attitude toward hypnotics, and reported less control over their hypnotic use. Users in “controlling use” cluster also had paradoxical attitude toward hypnotic, but their craving level of hypnotic was lower than users in “paradoxical dependence” cluster. In addition, users in “controlling use” cluster feel they can control their hypnotic use. Users in “supplementary use” cluster had lowest craving level, higher negative attitude toward hypnotic, and tend to avoid taking hypnotic when possible. Multiple logistic regression further showed that (1) people with older age or higher score on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale (DBAS) tend to classified into “habitual use” cluster; (2) people with mental disorder diagnosis, long history of insomnia, or higher score in Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) tend to be classified into the "paradoxical dependence " cluster; (3) patient with more years of education more likely fall into “controlling use” cluster, finally, (4) the hypnotic users who are younger or lower score in DBAS are easier classified into the “supplementary use ” cluster.
    Conclusions:The results of the current study indicates that similar medication behavior could have different hypnotic-related psychological status. Therefore, psychological factors are needed to be assessed in order to understand the process of long-term hypnotic use. The results provides a further understanding of the psychological mechanisms of hypnotic use, and also help clinician in related-field to develop insomnia treatment plan or hypnotic discontinuation program based on insomniacs’ characteristics and their psychological variable toward hypnotic use.
    Reference: 沈武典(2001)。醫療院所Benzodiazpine 藥物不當使用的初步分析。行政院衛生署管制藥品管理局九十年度委託科技研究計畫報告。台北市:台北醫學院。
    李澄賢(2003)。大學生情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力之關係。未出版之碩士論文,國立政治大學,台北市。
    初麗娟、高尚仁(2005)。壓力知覺對負面心理健康影響:靜坐經驗、情緒智能調節效果之探討The Moderation of Meditation Experience and Emotional Intelligence on the Relationship between Perceived Stress and Negative Mental Health。中華心理學刊,2(47),157-179。
    車先蕙、盧孟良、陳錫中、張尚文、李宇宙(2006)。中文版貝克焦慮量表之信效度。台灣醫學,4(10),447-454。
    林一真(2000)。貝克焦慮量表(BAI:1993年版)中文版。台北市:中國行為科學社。
    林詩淳 (2008)。慢性失眠者與情境性失眠高危險族群之壓力因應與失眠的關係。未出版之碩士論文,國立政治大學,台北市。
    林雅筑(2004)。安眠鎮靜劑之使用評估及失眠患者用藥指導之研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立成功大學,台南市。
    林晏瑄(2011)。 睡眠脆弱特質對認知激發狀態下的睡眠中訊息處理之影響。未出版之碩士論文,國立政治大學,台北市。
    吳佳璇(2005)。台灣鎮靜安眠類藥品使用盛行率以及相關後遺症之研究。行政院衛生署管制藥品管理局。
    洪嘉璣(2003)。藥物濫用者之渴想心理歷程:以強制戒治者為例。未出版之碩士論文,國立台灣大學,台北市。
    苯二氮平類(Benzodiazepines)藥品用於鎮靜安眠之使用指引(2007)
    許文耀(2009)。海洛因藥癮者的抑制控制探討。台北市,政治大學。國科會計畫。
    陳心怡(2000)。貝克憂鬱量表第二版(BDI-II)中文版。台北市:中國行為科學社。
    陳昌偉(2014)。安眠藥物長期使用型態之探討。未出版之博士論文,國立政治大學,台北市。
    陳昌偉、詹雅雯、楊建銘、林詩淳(2009)。中文版睡眠失功能信念及態度量表之信效度探討。Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep(DBAS): Validation of the Chinese Version,臨床心理學刊,1(4),59-67。
    傅雅懌(2009)。海洛因藥癮者的抑制歷程初探。碩士,國立中正大學,嘉義縣。
    楊建銘、許世杰、林詩淳、周映妤、陳瑩明(2009)。失眠嚴重度量表中文版的信、效度研究。臨床心理學刊,2(4),95-104。
    詹雅雯、陳昌偉、楊建銘、林詩淳(2009)。中文版睡前激發狀態量表之信、效度探討。臨床心理學刊,1(4),51-58。
    鄭淑文、楊瑛碧(2009)。精神科門診Benzodiazepines(BZDs)使用現況初探。藥學雜誌,4(25),118-125。
    盧孟良、車先蕙、張尚文、沈武典(2002)。中文版貝克憂鬱量表第二版之信度和效度。台灣精神醫學,4(16),301-310。
    謝斯婷(2010)。長期使用Benzodiazepines 與劑量變化之探討。未出版之碩士論文,國立成功大學,台南市。
    Ağargün, M. Y., Kara, H., & Solmaz, M. (1997). Sleep disturbances and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,58(6), 249-251
    Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.
    Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    An, H., & Chung, S. (2012). The influence of personality and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions on the severity of insomnia. Psychiatry research,197(3), 275-279.
    Ancoli-Israel, S., Richardson, G.S., Mangano, R.M., Jenkins, L., Hall, P., & Jones, W.S. (2005). Long-term use of sedative hypnotics in older patients with insomnia. Sleep Medicine, 6(2), 107-113.
    Ansseau, M., Pitchot, W., Hansenne, M., & Moreno, A. (1992). Psychotic reactions to zolpidem. The Lancet, 339(8796), 809.
    Asplund, R. (2000). Sleep and hypnotic use in relation to perceived somatic and mental health among the elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 31(3), 199-205.
    Ashton, H. (1994). Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. Drugs,48(1), 25-40.
    Baglioni, C., Spiegelhalder, K., Lombardo, C., & Riemann, D. (2010). Sleep and emotions: a focus on insomnia. Sleep medicine reviews, 14(4), 227-238.
    Baillargeon, L., Landreville, P., Verreault, R., Beauchemin, J. P., Grégoire, J. P., & Morin, C. M. (2003). Discontinuation of benzodiazepines among older insomniac adults treated with cognitive-behavioural therapy combined with gradual tapering: a randomized trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 169(10), 1015-1020.
    Barker, M. J., Greenwood, K. M., Jackson, M., & Crowe, S. F. (2004). Cognitive effects of long-term benzodiazepine use. CNS Drugs, 18(1), 37-48.
    Bastien, C. H., Vallières, A., & Morin, C. M. (2004). Precipitating factors of insomnia. Behavioral sleep medicine, 2(1), 50-62.
    Bastien, C. H., Vallières, A., & Morin, C. M. (2001). Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Medicine, 2(4), 297-307.
    Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56(6), 893.Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., Ball, R., & Ranieri, W. F. (1996). Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories-IA and-II in psychiatric outpatients. Journal of personality assessment, 67(3), 588-597.
    Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
    Belleville, G., & Morin, C. M. (2008). Hypnotic discontinuation in chronic insomnia: Impact of psychological distress, readiness to change, and self-efficacy. Health Psychology, 27(2), 239-248.
    Bélanger, L., Belleville, G., & Morin, C. (2009). Management of hypnotic discontinuation in chronic insomnia. Sleep medicine clinics, 4(4), 583.
    Bélanger, L., Vallières, A., Ivers, H., Moreau, V., Lavigne, G., & Morin, C. M. (2007). Meta‐analysis of sleep changes in control groups of insomnia treatment trials. Journal of sleep research, 16(1), 77-84.
    Benca, R. M. (2005). Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia: a review. Psychiatric services, 56(3), 332-343.
    Berridge, K. C., & Robinson, T. E. (1998). What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?. Brain Research Reviews, 28(3), 309-369.
    Bonnet, M. H., & Arand, D. L. (1995). 24-Hour metabolic rate in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers. sleep-, 18(7), 581-581.
    Bonnet, M. H., & Arand, D. L. (1996). The consequences of a week of insomnia. sleep, 19(6), 453-461.
    Bonnet, M. H., & Arand, D. L. (1997). Hyperarousal and insomnia. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 1(2), 97-108.
    Busto, U. E., Ruiz, I., Busto, M., & Gacitua, A. (1996). Benzodiazepine use in Chile: impact of availability on use, abuse, and dependence. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 16(5), 363-372.
    Busto, U., & Sellers, E. M. (1991). Pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 8(1), 29-33.
    Busto, U. E., Ruiz, I., Busto, M., & Gacitua, A. (1996). Benzodiazepine use in Chile: impact of availability on use, abuse, and dependence. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 16(5), 363-372.
    Carney, C. E., & Edinger, J. D. (2006). Identifying critical beliefs about sleep in primary insomnia. Sleep, 29(4), 444-453.
    Charney, D. S., Mihic, S. J., & Harris, R. A. (2001). Hypnotics and sedatives. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 399-327.
    Chen, W. J., Chen, H. M., Chen, C. C., Chen, C. C., Yu, W. Y., & Cheng, A. T. A. (2002). Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: psychometric properties and construct validity in Taiwanese adults. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43(2), 158-166.
    Clift, A. D. (1972). Factors leading to dependence on hypnotic drugs. Br Med J, 3(5827), 614-617.
    Cloninger, C. R. (1985). A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states. Psychiatric Developments, 4(3), 167-226.
    Cloninger, C. R. (1987). A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants: a proposal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44(6), 573-588.
    Cloninger, C. R., Przybeck, T. R., & Svrakic, D. M. (1991). The tridimensional personality questionnaire: US normative data. Psychological reports, 69(3), 1047-1057.
    Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385-396.
    Cricco, M., Simonsick, E. M., & Foley, D. J. (2001). The impact of insomnia on cognitive functioning in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49(9), 1185-1189.
    Cumming, R. G., & Le Conteur, D. G. (2003). Benzodiazepines and risk of hip fractures in older people. CNS drugs, 17(11), 825-837.
    de las Cuevas, C., Sanz, E., & de la Fuente, J. (2003). Benzodiazepines: more" behavioural" addiction than dependence. Psychopharmacology, 167(3), 297-303.
    Drake, C., Richardson, G., Roehrs, T., Scofield, H., & Roth, T. (2004). Vulnerability to stress-related sleep disturbance and hyperarousal. Sleep, 27(2), 285-292.
    Dooley, M., & Plosker, G. L. (2000). Zaleplon: a review of its use in the treatment of insomnia. Drugs, 60(2), 413-445.Estivill, E. (2002). Behaviour of insomniacs and implication for their management. Sleep medicine reviews, 6, S3-S6.
    Fang, S. Y., Chen, C. Y., Chang, I., Wu, E. C. H., Chang, C. M., & Lin, K. M. (2009). Predictors of the incidence and discontinuation of long-term use of benzodiazepines: a population-based study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 104(1), 140-146.
    Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Freedman, R. R., & Sattler, H. L. (1982). Physiological and psychological factors in sleep-onset insomnia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91(5), 380.
    Gallagher, P. F., Barry, P. J., Ryan, C., Hartigan, I., & O'Mahony, D. (2008). Inappropriate prescribing in an acutely ill population of elderly patients as determined by Beers' Criteria. Age and ageing, 37(1), 96-101.
    Godin, G., & Kok, G. (1996). The theory of planned behavior: a review of its applications to health-related behaviors. American journal of health promotion,11(2), 87-98.
    Gorgels, W., Oude Voshaar, R. C., Mol, A. J. J., Van De Lisdonk, E. H., Van Balkom, A., Breteler, M. H. M., . . . Zitman, F. G. (2006). Predictors of discontinuation of benzodiazepine prescription after sending a letter to long-term benzodiazepine users in family practice. Family Practice, 23(1), 65-72.
    Griffiths, R. R., & Weerts, E. M. (1997). Benzodiazepine self-administration in humans and laboratory animals–implications for problems of long-term use and abuse. Psychopharmacology, 134(1), 1-37.
    Grimm, J. W., Hope, B. T., Wise, R. A., & Shaham, Y. (2001). Neuroadaptation: incubation of cocaine craving after withdrawal. Nature, 412(6843), 141-142.
    Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being.Journal of personality and social psychology, 85(2), 348.
    Hall-Porter, J. M., Schweitzer, P. K., Eisenstein, R. D., Ahmed, H. A., & Walsh, J. K. (2014). The effect of two benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 10(1), 27-34.
    Hajak, G., Müller, W. E., Wittchen, H. U., Pittrow, D., & Kirch, W. (2003). Abuse and dependence potential for the non‐benzodiazepine hypnotics zolpidem and zopiclone: a review of case reports and epidemiological data. Addiction, 98(10), 1371-1378.
    Harvey, A. G. (2002). A cognitive model of insomnia. Behaviour research and therapy, 40(8), 869-893.
    Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., Friedman, J., Hastie, T., Friedman, J., & Tibshirani, R. (2009). The elements of statistical learning (Vol. 2, No. 1). New York: Springer.
    Healey, S. E., Kales, A., Monroe, L. J., Bixler, E. O., Chamberlin, K., & Soldatos, C. R. (1981). Onset of Insomnia: Role of Life-Stress Events.Psychosomatic Medicine, 43(5), 439-451.
    Herings, R. M., Stricker, B. H. C., de Boer, A., Bakker, A., & Sturmans, F. (1995). Benzodiazepines and the risk of falling leading to femur fractures: dosage more important than elimination half-life. Archives of Internal Medicine,155(16), 1801-1807.
    Hofmann, M., & Eichhorn, M. (1998). Unsatisfied craving: zolpidem (Stilnox) dependence syndrome. Psychiatrische Praxis, 25(6), 313.
    Holbrook, A. M., Crowther, R., Lotter, A., Cheng, C., & King, D. (2000). Meta-analysis of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of insomnia. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 162(2), 225-233.
    Hoyler, C. L., Tekell, J. L., & Silva, J. A. (1996). Zolpidem-induced agitation and disorganization. General hospital psychiatry, 18(6), 452-453.
    Huedo-Medina, T. B., Kirsch, I., Middlemass, J., Klonizakis, M., & Siriwardena, A. N. (2012). Effectiveness of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics in treatment of adult insomnia: meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 345.
    Isacson, D. (1997). Long-term benzodiazepine use: factors of importance and the development of individual use patterns over time—a 13-year follow-up in a Swedish community. Social science & medicine, 44(12), 1871-1880.
    Ishigooka,, J., Sugiyama,, T., Suzuki, M., Kobayashi, K., Takeuchi, H., & Murasaki, M. (1998). Survival analytic approach to long‐term prescription of benzodiazepine hypnotics. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 52(5), 541-545.
    Jorm, A. F., Grayson, D., Creasey, H., Waite, L., & Broe, G. A. (2000). Long‐term benzodiazepine use by elderly people living in the community. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 24(1), 7-10.
    Kao, C. C., Huang, C. J., Wang, M. Y., & Tsai, P. S. (2008). Insomnia: prevalence and its impact on excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological well-being in the adult Taiwanese population. Qual Life Res, 17(8), 1073-1080. doi: 10.1007/s11136-008-9383-9
    Kassam, A., & Patten, S. B. (2006). Hypnotic use in a population-based sample of over thirty-five thousand interviewed Canadians. Population health metrics,4(1), 15.
    Kirkwood, C. K. (1998). Management of insomnia. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Washington, DC: 1996), 39(5), 688-96.
    Krakow, B., Ulibarri, V. A., & Romero, E. (2010). Persistent insomnia in chronic hypnotic users presenting to a sleep medical center: A retrospective chart review of 137 consecutive patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(10), 734-741.
    Krystal, A. D., Walsh, J. K., Laska, E., Caron, J., Amato, D. A., Wessel, T. C., & Roth, T. (2003). Sustained efficacy of eszopiclone over 6 months of nightly treatment: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adults with chronic insomnia. SLEEP-NEW YORK THEN WESTCHESTER-,26(7), 793-800.
    Lader, M. (1994). Benzodiazepines. CNS Drugs, 1(5), 377-387.
    Lader, M., & Russell, J. (1993). Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of benzodiazepine dependence: Summary of a report from the Mental Health Foundation. Addiction.88, 1707-1708
    Lagnaoui, R., Bégaud, B., Moore, N., Chaslerie, A., Fourrier, A., Letenneur, L.,& Moride, Y. (2002). Benzodiazepine use and risk of dementia: A nested case–control study. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 55(3), 314-318.
    Landi, F., Onder, G., Cesari, M., Barillaro, C., Russo, A., & Bernabei, R. (2005). Psychotropic medications and risk for falls among community-dwelling frail older people: an observational study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 60(5), 622-626.
    Leahy, R. L. (2002). A model of emotional schemas. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9(3), 177-190.
    LeBlanc, M., Beaulieu-Bonneau, S., Mérette, C., Savard, J., Ivers, H., & Morin, C. M. (2007). Psychological and health-related quality of life factors associated with insomnia in a population-based sample. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63(2), 157-166.
    Liappas, I. A., Malitas, P. N., Dimopoulos, N. P., Gitsa, O. E., Liappas, A. I., Nikolaou, C. K., & Christodoulou, G. N. (2003). Zolpidem dependence case series: possible neurobiological mechanisms and clinical management. Journal of psychopharmacology, 17(1), 131-135.
    Lichstein, K. L., Nau, S. D., Wilson, N. M., Aguillard, R. N., Lester, K. W., Bush, A. J., & McCrae, C. S. (2013). Psychological treatment of hypnotic-dependent insomnia in a primarily older adult sample. Behaviour research and therapy,51(12), 787-796.
    Linden, M., Bär, T., & Geiselmann, B. (1998). Patient treatment insistence and medication craving in long-term low-dosage benzodiazepine prescriptions.Psychological medicine, 28(03), 721-729.
    Lord, S. R., Anstey, K. J., Williams, P. H. I. L. I. P. P. A., & Ward, J. A. (1995). Psychoactive medication use, sensori‐motor function and falls in older women.British journal of clinical pharmacology, 39(3), 227-234.
    Love, A., James, D., & Willner, P. (1998). A comparison of two alcohol craving questionnaires. Addiction, 93(7), 1091-1102.
    Maczaj, M. (1993). Pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Drugs, 45(1), 44-55.
    Mellinger, G. D., Balter, M. B., & Uhlenhuth, E. H. (1985). Insomnia and its treatment: prevalence and correlates. Archives of general psychiatry, 42(3), 225-232.
    Mendelson(2011). Pharmacology. In: Meir, H.K., Roth, T., William, C.,(ends), Principles and practice of sleep medicine 5th ed (483-491). St Louis, MO: Elsevier
    Merica, H., Blois, R., & Gaillard, J. M. (1998). Spectral characteristics of sleep EEG in chronic insomnia. European Journal of Neuroscience, 10(5), 1826-1834.
    Miller, S. M. (1979). Controllability and human stress: Method, evidence and theory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17(4), 287-304.
    Minowa, M., Okawa, M., & Uchiyama, M. (2000). Prevalence of sleep disturbance and hypnotic medication use in relation to sociodemographic factors in the general Japanese adult population. Journal of epidemiology/Japan Epidemiological Association, 10(2), 79-86.
    Morgan, K., Dallosso, H., Ebrahim, S., Arie, T., & Fentem, P. H. (1988). Prevalence, frequency, and duration of hypnotic drug use among the elderly living at home. British Medical Journal, 296(6622), 601-602.
    Morgenthaler, T. I., & Silber, M. H. (2002). Amnestic sleep-related eating disorder associated with zolpidem. Sleep Medicine, 3(4), 323-327.
    Morin, C. M. (1993). Insomnia: Psychological assessment and management(pp. 46-60). D. H. Barlow (Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
    Morin, C. M., Bastien, C. H., Guay, B., Radouco-Thomas, M., Leblanc, J., & Vallieres, A. (2004). Randomized clinical trial of supervised tapering and cognitive behavior therapy to facilitate benzodiazepine discontinuation in older adults with chronic insomnia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(2), 332-342.
    Morin, C. M., Bélanger, L., & Bernier, F. (2004). Correlates of benzodiazepine use in individuals with insomnia. Sleep medicine, 5(5), 457-462.
    Morin, C. M., Bélanger, L., Bastien, C. H., & Vallières, A. (2005). Long-term outcome after discontinuation of benzodiazepines for insomnia: a survival analysis of relapse. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(1), 1-14.
    Morin, C. M., Colecchi, C., Stone, J., Sood, R., & Brink, D. (1999). Behavioral and pharmacological therapies for late-life insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 281(11), 991-999.
    Morin, C. M., Culbert, J. P., & Schwartz, S. M. (1994). Nonpharmacological interventions for insomnia. Am J Psychiatry, 151(8), 1172-1180.
    Morin, C. M., LeBlanc, M., Daley, M., Gregoire, J. P., & Merette, C. (2006). Epidemiology of insomnia: prevalence, self-help treatments, consultations, and determinants of help-seeking behaviors. Sleep Med, 7(2), 123-130.
    Morin, C. M., Stone, J., Trinkle, D., Mecer, J., & Remsberg, S. (1993). Dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep among older adults with and without insomnia complaints. Psychology and Aging, 8, 463-467.
    Morin, C. M., Vallières, A., & Ivers, H. (2007). Dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep (DBAS): validation of a brief version (DBAS-16). Sleep, 30(11), 1547-1554.
    National Institutes of Health (NIH). (1984). Drugs and insomnia: The use of medications to promote sleep. Journal of the American Medical Association, 18, 2410 –2414.
    Neutel, C. I. (2005). The epidemiology of long-term benzodiazepine use.International Review of Psychiatry, 17(3), 189-197.
    NIH. (2005). NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults June 13–15, 2005. Paper presented at the Sleep. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17308547
    Nicassio, P. M., Mendlowitz, D. R., Fussell, J. J., & Petras, L. (1985). The phenomenology of the pre-sleep state: the development of the pre-sleep arousal scale. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23(3), 263-271.
    Nicholas, D., & Hammond, S. M. (1992). Personality characteristics of long-term benzodiazepine users. Personality and individual differences, 13(2), 221-223.
    Nordfjærn, T., Bjerkeset, O., Moylan, S., Berk, M., & Gråwe, R. W. (2013). Clusters of personality traits and psychological symptoms associated with later benzodiazepine prescriptions in the general population: The HUNT Cohort Study. Addictive Behaviors, 38(10), 1575-2580.
    O’Connor, K., Bélanger, L., Marchand, A., Dupuis, G., Elie, R., & Boyer, R. (1999). Psychological distress and adaptational problems associated with discontinuation of benzodiazepines. Addictive behaviors, 24(4), 537-541.
    O'Connor, K. P., Marchand, A., Belanger, L., Mainguy, N., Landry, P., Savard, P., . . . Lachance, L. (2004). Psychological distress and adaptational problems associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal and outcome: a replication. Addictive Behaviors, 29(3), 583-593.
    Ohayon, M. M. (2002). Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn.Sleep medicine reviews, 6(2), 97-111. doi: S1087079202901863 [pii]
    Ohayon, M. M., Caulet, M., Arbus, L., Billard, M., Coquerel, A., Guieu, J. D., ... & Vespignani, H. (1999). Are prescribed medications effective in the treatment of insomnia complaints? Journal of psychosomatic research, 47(4), 359-368.
    Ohayon, M. M., Riemann, D., Morin, C., & Reynolds III, C. F. (2012). Hierarchy of insomnia criteria based on daytime consequences. Sleep medicine, 13(1), 52-57.
    Omvik, S., Pallesen, S., Bjorvatn, B., Sivertsen, B., Havik, O. E., & Nordhus, I. H. (2010). Patient characteristics and predictors of sleep medication use. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(2), 91-100.
    Perlis, M. L., Giles, D. E., Mendelson, W. B., Bootzin, R. R., & Wyatt, J. K. (1997). Psychophysiological insomnia: the behavioural model and a neurocognitive perspective. Journal of Sleep Research, 6(3), 179-188.
    Perlis, M. L., Smith, M. T., Orff, H. J., Andrews, P. J., & Giles, D. E. (2001). The mesograde amnesia of sleep may be attenuated in subjects with primary insomnia. Physiology & behavior, 74(1), 71-76.
    Poyares, D., Guilleminault, C., Ohayon, M. M., & Tufik, S. (2004). Chronic benzodiazepine usage and withdrawal in insomnia patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38(3), 327-334.
    Ramakrishnan, K., & Scheid, D. C. (2007). Treatment options for insomnia. Am Fam Physician,76(4), 517-526.
    Rhee, S. J., Ko, S. M., Choi, J. W., & Park, H. (2012). High-Dose Zolpidem Dependence and Detoxification from Withdrawal Symptoms Using Diazepam.Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 51(3), 134-138.
    Rickels, K., Schweizer, E., Case, W. G., & Greenblatt, D. J. (1990). Long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines: I. Effects of abrupt discontinuation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47(10), 899-907.
    Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain research reviews, 18(3), 247-291.
    Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (2001). Incentive-sensitization and addiction.Addiction, 96(1), 103-114.
    Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (2008). Review. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 363(1507), 3137-3146.
    Roehrs, T., Hollebeek, E., Drake, C., & Roth, T. (2002). Substance use for insomnia in Metropolitan Detroit. Journal of psychosomatic research, 53(1), 571-576.
    Roehrs, T., Merlotti, L., Zorick, F., & Roth, T. (1992). Rebound insomnia and hypnotic self administration. Psychopharmacology, 107(4), 480-484.
    Roehrs, T., & Roth, T. (2003). Hypnotics: an update. Current neurology and neuroscience reports, 3(2), 181-184.
    Roehrs, T. A., Randall, S., Harris, E., Maan, R., & Roth, T. (2011). Twelve months of nightly zolpidem does not lead to dose escalation: a prospective placebo-controlled study. Sleep, 34(2), 207.
    Roehrs, T., Vogel, G., & Roth, T. (1990). Rebound insomnia: its determinants and significance. The American journal of medicine, 88(3), S39-S42.
    Rush, C. R., Frey, J. M., & Griffiths, R. R. (1999). Zaleplon and triazolam in humans: acute behavioral effects and abuse potential. Psychopharmacology, 145(1), 39-51.
    Roehrs, T., Vogel, G., & Roth, T. (1990). Rebound insomnia: its determinants and significance. The American journal of medicine, 88(3), S39-S42.
    Roth, T., Walsh, J. K., Krystal, A., Wessel, T., & Roehrs, T. A. (2005). An evaluation of the efficacy and safety of eszopiclone over 12 months in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Sleep medicine, 6(6), 487-495.
    Roth, T., Hartse, K. M., Zorick, F. J., & Kaffeman, M. E. (1979). The differential effects of short-and long-acting benzodiazepines upon nocturnal sleep and daytime performance. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 30(5a), 891-894.
    Rousseeuw, P. J. (1987). Silhouettes: a graphical aid to the interpretation and validation of cluster analysis. Journal of computational and applied mathematics, 20, 53-65.
    Saddichha, S. (2010). Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 13(2), 94.
    Savić, M. M., Obradović, D. I., Ugrešić, N. D., & Bokonjić, D. R. (2005). Memory effects of benzodiazepines: memory stages and types versus binding-site subtypes. Neural plasticity, 12(4), 289-298.
    Schuckit, M. A., Smith, T. L., Kramer, J., Danko, G., & Volpe, F. R. (2002). The prevalence and clinical course of sedative-hypnotic abuse and dependence in a large cohort. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 28(1), 73-90.
    Schweizer, E., Rickels, K., De Martinis, N., Case, G., & Garcia-Espana, F. (1998). The effect of personality on withdrawal severity and taper outcome in benzodiazepine dependent patients. Psychological medicine, 28(03), 713-720.
    Sharma, A., & Dewan, V. K. (2005). A case report of zolpidem-induced somnambulism. Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry,7(2), 74.
    Siegel, S. (1983). Classical conditioning, drug tolerance, and drug dependence Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems (Vol. 7, pp. 207-246): Springer
    Smith, M. T., Perlis, M. L., Smith, M. S., Giles, D. E., & Carmody, T. P. (2000). Sleep quality and presleep arousal in chronic pain. Journal of behavioral medicine, 23(1), 1-13.
    Soumerai, S. B., Simoni-Wastila, L., Singer, C., Mah, C., Gao, X., Salzman, C., & Ross-Degnan, D. (2003). Lack of relationship between long-term use of benzodiazepines and escalation to high dosages. Psychiatric Services, 54(7), 1006-1011.
    Spielman, A. J., Caruso, L. S., & Glovinsky, P. B. (1987). A behavioral perspective on insomnia treatment. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 10(4), 541-533.
    Spielman, A. J., & Glovinsky, P. (1991). The varied nature of insomnia. Case studies in insomnia, 1-15
    Stoller, M. K. (1994). Economic effects of insomnia. Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy, 16(5), 873-897.
    Tiffany, S. T. (1990). A cognitive model of drug urges and drug-use behavior: role of automatic and nonautomatic processes. Psychological Review, 97(2), 147-168.
    Tiffany, S. T., & Conklin, C. A. (2000). A cognitive processing model of alcohol craving and compulsive alcohol use. Addiction, 95(8s2), 145-153.
    Tiffany, S. T., & Drobes, D. J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86(11), 1467-1476.
    Vahtera, J., Kivimäki, M., Hublin, C., Korkeila, K., Suominen, S., Paunio, T., & Koskenvuo, M. (2007). Liability to anxiety and severe life events as predictors of new-onset sleep disturbances. Sleep, 30(11), 1537.
    Vander Wal, G. S., Ruiter, M. E., & Lichstein, K. L. (2008). Transient insomnia: a behavioral sleep medicine perspective. Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Therapeutics, 70.
    Vetrugno, R., Manconi, M., Ferini-Strambi, L., Provini, F., Plazzi, G., & Montagna, P. (2006). Nocturnal eating: sleep-related eating disorder or night eating syndrome? A videopolysomnographic study. Sleep, 29(7), 949-954.
    Voshaar, R. C., Gorgels, W. I. M. J. M. J., Mol, A. J. J., Van Balkom, A. J. L. M., Van Dd Lisdonk, E. H., Breseler, M. H. M., . . . Zitman, F. G. (2003). Tapering off long-term benzodiazepine use with or without group cognitive-behavioural therapy: three-condition, randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 182(6), 498-504.
    Verster, J. C., Veldhuijzen, D. S., & Volkerts, E. R. (2004). Residual effects of sleep medication on driving ability. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 8(4), 309-325.
    Walsh, J. K. (2002). Zolpidem “as needed” for the treatment of primary insomnia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sleep medicine reviews, 6, S7-S11.
    Walsh & Roth (2011). Pharmacologic Treatment of insomnia : Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists Pharmacology. In: Meir, H.K., Roth, T., William, C.,(ends), Principles and practice of sleep medicine 5th ed (905-915). St Louis, MO: Elsevier
    Whitlock, F. A. (1975). Suicide in Brisbane, 1956 to 1973: the drug-death epidemic. The Medical Journal of Australia, 1(24), 737-743.
    Williams, D. D., & McBride, A. (1998). Benzodiazepines: time for reassessment.The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(5), 361-362.
    Wikler, A. (1948). Recent progress in research on the neurophysiologic basis of morphine addiction. American journal of Psychiatry, 105(5), 329-338.
    Wyatt, J. K., Bootzin, R. R., Allen, J. J., & Anthony, J. L. (1997). Mesograde amnesia during the sleep onset transition: Replication and electrophysiological correlates. SLEEP-NEW YORK-, 20, 512-522.
    Yang, W., Dollear, M., & Muthukrishnan, S. R. (2005). One rare side effect of zolpidem—sleepwalking: a case report. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 86(6), 1265-1266.
    Zandstra, S. M., Furer, J. W., Van de Lisdonk, E. H., Van't Hof, M., Bor, J. H. J., Van Weel, C., & Zitman, F. G. (2002). Different study criteria affect the prevalence of benzodiazepine use. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 37(3), 139-144.
    Zandstra, S. M., Van Rijswijk, E., Rijnders, C., Van De Lisdonk, E. H., Bor, J. H. J., Van Weel, C., & Zitman, F. G. (2004). Long-term benzodiazepine users in family practice: differences from short-term users in mental health, coping behaviour and psychological characteristics. Family practice, 21(3), 266-269.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    心理學研究所
    100752001
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100752001
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    200101.pdf1788KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback