English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 88295/117812 (75%)
Visitors : 23402362      Online Users : 168
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/76924


    Title: 選舉制度對投票參與的影響: 跨國比較與台灣個案分析
    Effects of Electoral Systems on Voter Turnout: Cross-National Comparisons and Taiwan’s Experience
    Authors: 林啟耀
    Lim, Kah Yew
    Contributors: 黃紀
    Huang, Chi
    林啟耀
    Lim, Kah Yew
    Keywords: 投票參與
    選舉制度
    選制變遷
    跨國比較
    個案分析
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2015-07-27 11:32:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 投票參與是民主政治運作的核心,投票率的高低是政府執政是否具有代表性與正當性的重要指標。選舉制度是否影響投票參與,一直深受國內外學者所關注,然而選舉制度如何對投票參與造成影響卻頗多爭論。為了探討選舉制度與選制變遷如何影響投票參與,本研究以跨國比較的方式,分析各種選舉制度對國會投票率高低的直接影響與跨時影響。同時,本研究也以台灣選制變遷為個案分析對象,探討選制變遷對投票參與之效應。在方法上,本研究在跨國比較的部分蒐集世界各民主國家歷次國會選舉的相關資料,並以「固定與隨機效果混合法」進行分析;在台灣個案分析的部分,本研究採「準實驗設計」,以鄉鎮市民代表選舉為比較組,評估選制變遷對立委選舉投票率之影響。另外也以「台灣選舉與民主化調查」TEDS2008L針對TEDS2004L成功樣本之定群追蹤資料,分析台灣同一群選民在新舊選制下投票參與的穩定與變遷。
    研究結果可以分為兩個部分:在跨國比較的部分,本研究發現選舉規則的比例代表性愈低,投票率會愈低。其中,採並立制國家的投票率顯著低於採比例代表制的國家,採多數決制的國家投票率下降的幅度則顯著大於比例代表制國家。選區規模愈大的國家,投票率則愈高。另外,本研究也發現選舉制度對不同民主資歷國家的影響也不同,對民主資歷較深國家的影響較大且較符合學理預期,對民主資歷較淺國家則影響較小。在台灣個案的部分,本研究發現立委選制變遷並沒有對總體投票率產生顯著的影響,但是對個體選民的投票穩定與變遷卻有顯著的影響。尤其是評估新選制比舊選制更讓人不想去投票的選民以及小黨支持者,都比較傾向在舊選制下有去投,但新選制下不去投。本研究認為透過上述宏觀與微觀層次的分析,不僅讓我們對選舉制度如何影響國會選舉投票率高低及變化有更深入的瞭解,也讓我們釐清選舉制度變遷如何影響個別選民的投票參與。
    Reference: 王業立,2011,《比較選舉制度》,六版,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    王業立、彭怡菲,2004,〈分裂投票:一個制度面的分析〉,《台灣政治學刊》,8(1): 3-45。
    王鼎銘、郭銘峰、黃紀,2008,〈選制轉變過程下杜佛傑心理效應之檢視:從日本眾議院選制變革的經驗來觀察〉,《問題與研究》,47(3): 1-28。
    吳俊德、陳永福,2005,〈投票與不投票的抉擇-2004年總統大選與公民投票的探索性研究〉,《台灣民主季刊》,2(4): 67-98。
    吳重禮,2008,〈立法委員選舉制制度改革的省思:匡正弊端或是治絲益棼〉,載於《如何評估選制變遷:方法論的探討》, 黃紀、游清鑫主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    吳振嘉,2002,〈選舉制度變革的影響因素-以日本、台灣為例〉,國立政治大學政治學系碩士學位論文。
    呂亞力,1988,《政治發展與民主》,四版,台北市:五南圖書出版公司。
    林長志,2009,〈立委選制變遷對選民投票行為之影響:投票穩定與變遷的分析〉,國立政治大學政治學系博士學位論文。
    林繼文,2006,〈政府體制、選舉制度與政黨體系:一個配套論的分析〉,《選舉研究》,13(2): 1-35。
    張佑丞,2008,〈選舉制度與結果的比例性偏差:以台灣立法委員選舉制度為例(1992-2008)〉,國立政治大學國家發展研究所碩士學位論文。
    張家愷,2008,〈立法委員選舉制度變革對我國政黨體系之影響〉,國立政治大學國家發展研究所碩士學位論文。
    盛杏湲,2008,〈如何評估選制變遷對區域立委的代表角色與行為的影響:研究方法的探討〉,載於《如何評估選制變遷:方法論的探討》, 黃紀、游清鑫主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    陳陸輝、周應龍,2008,〈如何評估單一選區兩票制下候選人票與政黨票之間的連動關係〉,載於《如何評估選制變遷:方法論的探討》, 黃紀、游清鑫主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    逯扶東,2002,《西洋政治思想史》,台北市:三民出版社。
    黃信達、王業立,2008,〈選制變革對地方政治生態的影響:研究方法的探討〉,載於《如何評估選制變遷:方法論的探討》, 黃紀、游清鑫主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃紀,2005,〈投票穩定與變遷之分析方法:定群類別資料之馬可夫鍊模型〉,《選舉研究》,12(1): 1-35。
    黃紀,2008a,〈選舉制度的脈絡與效應〉,載於《如何評估選制變遷:方法論的探討》, 黃紀、游清鑫主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃紀,2008b,〈單一選區兩票並立制下選民之投票抉擇:分析方法之探討〉,載於《如何評估選制變遷:方法論的探討》, 黃紀、游清鑫主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃紀,2009,〈調查研究設計〉,載於《民意調查新論》,游清鑫主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃紀,2010,〈因果推論與效應評估:區段識別法及其於「選制效應」之應用〉,《選舉研究》,17(2): 103-134。
    黃紀,2012,〈質量並用法〉,載於《社會及行為科學研究法(一):總論與量化研究》,瞿海源、畢恆達、劉長萱、楊國樞主編,台北:東華書局。
    黃紀,2013,〈政治學計量方法的回顧與前瞻〉,載於《政治學的回顧與前瞻》,吳玉山、冷則剛、林繼文 主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃紀、王德育,2009,〈2008年立委選舉對總統選舉的影響:鐘擺效應?西瓜效應?〉,載於《2008年總統選舉:論二次政黨輪替之關鍵選舉》,陳陸輝、游清鑫、黃紀 主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃紀、周應龍,2013,〈2012年總統與立委併選的一致與分裂投票〉,載於《2012年總統與立法委員選舉:變遷與延續》, 陳陸輝主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃紀、林長志,2013,〈併選對投票率的影響:因果效應分析〉,載於《2012年總統與立委選舉:變遷與延續》,陳陸輝主編,台北:五南圖書出版公司。
    黃桃芳,2005,〈台灣選民選舉參與之研究:總體與個體之資料的結合〉,國立政治大學政治學系碩士學位論文。
    楊百岳,2013,〈台灣選民選舉參與之研究:總體與個體之資料的結合〉,國立政治大學政治學系碩士學位論文。
    楊孟麗,2003,〈投票意願與經濟不景氣:台灣的情形〉,《選舉研究》,10(2): 159-191。
    劉浩廷,2010,〈投票率對民主政治的影響〉,國立中正大學政治學系碩士學位論文。
    蕭怡靖,2008,〈單一選區兩票制下台灣選民之投票行為:2008年立法委員選舉的多層分析〉,國立政治大學政治學系博士學位論文。
    蕭怡靖,2009,〈選制認知與投票參與:2008 年立法委員選舉的多層分析〉,《政治學報》,47: 29-58。。
    蕭怡靖、黃紀,2010a,〈2008年立委選舉候選人票之分析:選民個體與選區總體的多層模型〉,《台灣政治學刊》,14(1): 3-53。
    蕭怡靖、黃紀,2010b,〈單一選區兩票制下之一致與分裂投票:2008年立委選舉之探討〉,《台灣民主季刊》,7(3): 1-43。
    Abramson, Paul, and John Aldrich. 1982. “The decline of electoral participation in America.” American Political Science Review 76(3): 502-521.
    Aldrich, John. 1993. “Rational Choice and Turnout.” American Journal of Political Science 37(1): 246-278.
    Allison, Paul. 2009. Fixed Effects Regression Models. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications
    Alvarez, Mike, José Antonio Cheibub, Fernando Limongi, and Adam Przeworski. 1996. “Classifying Political Regime.” Studies in Comparative International Development 31(2): 3-36.
    Andre, Audrey, and Sam Depauw. 2012. “District Magnitude and the Personal Vote.” Presented at the ‘Effects of District Magnitude’ Conference. Lisbon, May 29-30.
    Black, Jerome. 1991. “Reforming the Context of the Voting Process in Canada: Lessons from Other Democracies.” In Voter Turnout in Canada, ed. Herman Bakvis. Toronto: Dundum Press.
    Blais, André. 2000. To Vote or Not to Vote? The Merits and Limits Rational Choice Theory. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Blais, André. 2006. “What Affects Turnout?” Annual Review of Political Science 9: 111-125.
    Blais, André. 2007. “Turnout in Elections” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, eds. Russell Dalton and Hans-dieter Klingemann. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Blais, André, and Agnieszka Dobrzynska. 1998. “Turnout in Electoral Democracies.” European Journal of Political Research 33: 239-261.
    Blais, André, and Kees Aarts. 2006. “Electoral Systems and Turnout.” Acta Politica 41: 180-196.
    Blais, André, and Kenneth Carty. 1990. “Does Proportional Representation Foster Voter Turnout?” European Journal of Political Research 18: 167-181.
    Blais, André, Louis Massicotte, and Agnieszka Dobrzynska. 2003. Why is Turnout Higher in Some Countries than in Others. Ottawa: Elections Canada.
    Blais, André, Louis Massicotte, and Antoine Yoshinaka. 2001. “Deciding Who Has the Right to Vote: Election Laws in Democracies.” Electoral Studies 20: 41-62.
    Bormann, Nils-Christian, and Matt Golder. 2013. “Electoral Systems around the World: 1946-2011.” Electoral Studies 32(2): 360-369.
    Brady, Henry, Sidney Verba and Kay Lehman Schlozman. 1995. “Beyond Ses: A Resource Model of Political Participation.” American Political Science Review 89(2): 271-294.
    Campbell, Angus, Philip Converse, Warren Miller, and Donald Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.
    Campbell, Donald, and Julian Stanley. 1963. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Carey, John, and Simon Hix. 2011. “The Electoral Sweet Spot: Low-Magnitude Proportional Electoral Systems.” American Journal of Political Science 55(2): 383–397
    Cheibub, José Antonio, Jennifer Gandhi, and James Raymond Vreeland. 2010. “Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited.” Public Choice 143(1-2): 67-101.
    Cox, Gary. 1997. Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cox, Gary, and Michael Munger. 1989. “Closeness, Expenditures and Turnout in the 1982 US House Elections.” American Political Science Review 83(1): 217-230.
    Cox, Karen, and Leonard Schoppa. 2002. “Interaction Effects in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: Theory and Evidence from Germany, Japan, and Italy.” Comparative Political Studies 35(9): 1027-1053.
    Davis, Olethia. 1991. A Multivariate Analysis of Voter Turnout in Louisiana Contested Nonpartisan judicial Elections, 1981-1988. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
    Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
    Duverger, Maurice. 1955. Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. New York: Wiley
    Elgie, Robert, and Christine Fauvelle-Aymar. 2012. “Turnout under Semi-Presidentialism: First- and Second-Order Elections to National-Level Institutions.” Comparative Political Studies 45(12): 1598-1623.
    Farrell, David. 2001. Electoral Systems: A Comparative Introduction. New York: Palgrave Publishers.
    Farrell, David. 2011. Electoral Systems: A Comparative Introduction. 2nd Ed. New York: Palgrave Publishers.
    Fauvelle-Aymar, Christine, and Abel Francois. 2006. “The Impact of Closeness on Turnout: An Unambiguous Empirical Relation Based on a Study of a Two-Round Ballot.” Public Choice 127(3-4): 461-484.
    Ferejohn, John, and Morris Fiorina. 1974. “The Paradox of Not Voting: A Decision Theoretic Analysis.” American Political Science Review 68(2): 525-536.
    Filer, John, and Lawrence Kenny. 1980. “Voter Turnout and the Benefits of Voting.” Public Choice 35(5): 575 -585.
    Filer, John, Lawrence Kenny, and Robert Morton. 1993. “Redistribution, Income and Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 37(1): 63-87.
    Fornos, Carolina, Timothy Power, and James Garand. 2004. “Explaining Voter Turnout in Latin America, 1980 to 2000.” Comparative Political Studies 37(8): 909-940.
    Franklin, Mark. 1996. “Electoral Participation.” In Elections and Voting in Global Perspective, Eds. Laurence Leduc, Richard Niemi and Pippa Norris. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Franklin, Mark. 2002. “The Dynamics of Electoral Participation.” In Elections and Voting in Global Perspective 2, eds. Laurence Leduc, Richard Niemi and Pippa Norris. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Franklin, Mark. 2003. “The Voter Turnout Puzzles.” Analise Social 38: 321-338.
    Franklin, Mark. 2004. Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies since 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gallagher, Michael, and Paul Mitchell. 2006. The Politics of Electoral Systems. Oxford: University Press.
    Geys, Benny. 2006. “Explaining Voter Turnout: A Review of Aggregate-Level Research.” Electoral Studies 25: 637-663.
    Greene, William. 2008. Econometric Analysis, 6th edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    Hausman, Jerry, and Daniel McFadden. 1984. “Specification Tests for the Multinomial Logit Model.” Econometrica 52(5): 1219-1240.
    Hausman, Jerry, and David Wise. 1978. “A Conditional Probit Model for Qualitative Choice Discrete Decisions Recognizing Interdependence and Heterogeneous Preferences.” Econometrica 46(2): 403-426.
    Henig, Ruth, and Simon Henig. 2001. Women and Political Power. New York: Routledge.
    Hensher, David, John Rose, and William Greene. 2005. Applied Choice Analysis: A Premier. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hix, Simon, and Michael Marsh. 2011. “Second-Order Effects Plus Pan-European Political Swings: An Analysis of European Parliament Elections across Time.” Electoral Studies 30(1): 4-15.
    Hoffman-Martinot, Vincent. 1994. “Voter turnout in French Municipal Elections.” In Local Elections in Europe, ed. Lopez-Nieto. Barcelona: Institut de Cie`nces Politiques I Socials.
    Holland, Paul. 1986. “Statistics and Casual Inference.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 81(396): 945-960.
    Huang, Chi, and Todd Shields. 1994. “Modeling and Interpreting Interactions in Logit Analysis.” Journal of Electoral Studies 1(1): 171-196.
    Huang, Chi, Ming-feng Kuo, and Hans Stockton. 2016. “The Consequences of MMM on Party Systems.” In Mixed-Member Electoral Systems and Executive-Centric Theory: Taiwan, Japan, and Beyond. eds. Nathan Batto, Chi Huang, Alexander Tan, and Gary Cox. forthcoming.
    Huang, Chi, Hung-chung Wang, and Chang-chih Lin. 2013. “Knowledge of the Electoral System and Voting: the Case of Taiwan’s 2012 Legislative Election.” Issues & Studies, 49(4): 1-45.
    Huckfeldt, Robert, and John Sprague. 1993. “Citizens, Contexts, and Politics.” In Political science: The state of the discipline II, ed. Ada Finifter. Washington, DC: American Political Science Association.
    Huntington, Samuel. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Inglehart, Ronald. 1990.Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Inglehart, Ronald. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Jackman, Robert. 1987. “Political Institutions and Voter Turnout in the Industrial Democracies.” American Political Science Review 81(2): 405-423.
    Jackman, Robert, and Ross Miller. 1995. “Voter Turnout in the Industrial Democracies during the 1980s.” Comparative Political Studies 27(4): 467-492.
    Jacobs, Kriestof, and Niels Spierings. 2010. “District Magnitude and Turnout: A Multi-Level Analysis of Self-Reported Voting in the 32 Dominican Republic Districts.” Electoral Studies 29(4): 704-718.
    Jacobson, Gary. 2000. The Politics of Congressional Elections. 5th ed. New York: Longman Publishing.
    Johnson, Martin, Philip Shively, and Robert Stein. 2002. “Contextual Data and the Study of Elections and Voting Behavior: Connecting Individuals to Environments.” Electoral Studies 21(2): 219-233.
    King, Gary, Robert Keohane, and Sidney Verba. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Kostadinova, Tatiana. 2003. “Voter Turnout Dynamics in Post-Communist Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 42(6): 741-759.
    Kostadinova, Tatiana, and Timothy Power. 2007. “Does Democratization Depress Participation.” Political Research Quarterly 60(3): 363-376.
    Leighley, Jan, and Jonathan Nagler. 1992. “Socioeconomic Class Bias in Turnout, 1972-1988: The Voters Remain the Same.” American Political Science Review 86(3): 725-736.
    Lijphart, Arend. 1984. “Advances in the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems.” World Politics 36(3): 424-436.
    Lijphart, Arend. 1994. Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lijphart, Arend. 1997. “Unequal Participation: Democracy’s Unresolved Dilemma.” American Political Science Review 91(1): 1-14.
    Lin, Jih-wen. 2002. “Electoral Systems, Voter Preference, and Effective Number of Parties: the East Asian Cases.” Journal of Electoral Studies 9(1): 131-171.
    Long, Scott. 1997. Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    Marsh, Michael. 1998. “Testing the Second-Order Election Model after Four European Elections.” British Journal of Political Science 28(4): 591-607.
    Massicotte, Louis, and André Blais. 1999. “Mixed Electoral Systems: A Conceptual and Empirical Survey.” Electoral Studies 18: 341-366.
    Matsusaka, John. 1993. “Election Closeness and Voter Turnout: Evidence from California Ballot Propositions.” Public Choice 76(4): 313-334.
    Matsusaka, John, and Filip Palda. 1999. “Voter Turnout: How Much Can We Explain?” Public Choice 98(3-4): 431-446.
    McFadden, Daniel. 1974. “Conditional Logit Analysis of Qualitative Choice Behavior.” In Frontiers of Econometrics, ed. P. Zarembka. New York: Academic Press.
    Milner, Henry. 2009. “Does Proportional Representation Boost Turnout.” Presented at the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems Conference, University of Toronto, September 6.
    Moser, Robert, and Ethan Scheiner. 2009. “Strategic voting in established and new democracies: Ticket splitting in mixed-member electoral systems.” Electoral Studies 28(1): 51-61.
    Nikolenyi, Csaba. 2010. “Concurrent Elections and Voter Turnout: The Effect of the de-Linking of State Elections on Electoral Participation in India’s Parliamentary Polls, 1971-2004.” Political Studies 58(1): 214-233.
    Nohlen, Dieter. 2005. Elections in the Americas: A Data Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nohlen, Dieter, Florian Grotz, and Christof Hartmann. 2001. Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nohlen, Dieter, Michael Krennerich, and Bernard Thibaut. 1999. Elections in Africa: A Data Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nohlen, Dieter, and Philip Stoever. 2010. Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Norris, Pippa. 1995. “The Politics of Electoral Reform in Britain.” International Political Science Review 16(1): 65-78.
    Norris, Pippa. 2002. Rising Phoenix: Democratic Participation Worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Norris, Pippa. 2004. Electoral Engineering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Norris, Pippa. 2005. Radical Right: Parties and electoral competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Oliver, Eric. 2000. “City Size and Civic Involvement in Metropolitan America.” American Political Science Review 94(2): 361-372.
    Paola, Maria De, and Vincenzo Scoppa. 2012. “The Causal Impact of Closeness on Electoral Participation Exploiting the Italian Dual Ballot System.” Working Papers, sites: http://www.ecostat.unical.it/RePEc/WorkingPapers/WP03_2012.pdf (accessed December 22, 2013)
    Pateman, Carole. 1970. Participation and Democratic Theory. NY: Cambridge University Press.
    Pattie, Charles, and Ron Johnston. 2001. “A Low Turnout Landslide: Abstention at the British General Election of 1997.” Political Studies 49: 286–305.
    Powell, Bingham. 1982. Comparative Democracies: Participation, Stability and Violence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Powell, Bingham. 1986. “American Voter Turnout in Comparative Perspective.” American Political Science Review 80(1): 17-43.
    Przeworski, Adam, and Henry Teune. 1970. The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia, and Anders Skrondal. 2012. Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata, Volume I: Continuous Responses, 3rd edition. College Station: Stata Press.
    Radcliff, Benjamin. 1992. “The Welfare State, Turnout and the Economy: A Comparative Analysis.” American Political Science Review 86(2): 444-454.
    Rae, Douglas. 1967. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Railings, Colin, and Michael Thrasher. 2006. “The Turnout ‘gap’ and the Costs of Voting: A Comparison of Participation at the 2001 General and 2002 Local Election in England.” Public Choice 131: 333-344.
    Reif, Karlheinz, and Hermann Schmitt. 1980. “Nine Second-Order National Elections: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Election Results.” European Journal of Political Research 8: 3-44.
    Riker, William, and Peter Ordeshook. 1968. “A Theory of the Calculus of Voting.” American Political Science Review 62(1): 25-42.
    Rolfe, Meredith. 2012. Voter Turnout: A Social Theory of Political Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rosenstone, Steven, and John Hansen. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.
    Sartori, Giovanni. 1968. “Political Development and Political Engineering.” In Public Policy, eds. John Montgomery and Albert Hirshmann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Selb, Peter. 2009. “A Deeper Look at the Proportionality Turnout Nexus.” Comparative Political Studies 42(4): 527-548.
    Shadish, William, Thomas Cook, and Donald Campbell. 2002. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Shugart, Matthew. 1985. “The Two Effects of District Magnitude: Venezuela as a Crucial Experiment.” European Journal of Political Research 13: 353-364.
    Shugart, Matthew. 2005. “Comparative Electoral Systems Research: The Maturation of a Field and New Challenges Ahead.” In The Politics of Electoral Systems, eds. Michael Gallapher and Paul Mitchell. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Shugart, Matthew, and Martin Wattenberg. 2001. Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Siaroff, Alan, and John Merer. 2002. “Parliamentary Election Turnout in Europe since 1990.” Political Studies 50(4): 916-927.
    Simonovits, Gábor. 2012. “Competition and Turnout Revisited: The Importance of Measuring Expected Closeness Accurately.” Electoral Studies 31(2): 364-371.
    Stockemer, Daniel. 2013. “District Magnitude and Electoral Turnout: A Macro-Level Global Analysis.” Acta Politica Advance Online Publication, December 13.
    Taagepera, Rein, and Matthew Shugart. 1989. Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Tavits, Margit, and Taavi Annus. 2006. “Learning to make votes count: The role of democratic experience.” Electoral Studies 25(1): 72-90.
    Teixeira, Ruy. 1987. Why Americans Don't Vote: Turnout Decline in the United States 1960-1984. New York: Greenwood.
    Train, Kenneth. 2003. Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tsai, Chia-Huang. 2001. “Why Do Taiwaness Vote ?” Journal of Election Studies 8(2): 125-168.
    Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Verba, Sidney, and Norman Nie. 1972. Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. New York: Harper and Row.
    Vowles, Jack. 2010. “Electoral System Change, Generations, Competitiveness and Turnout in New Zealand, 1963-2005” British Journal of Political Science 40(4): 875-895.
    Weingast, Barry. 2002. “Rational-Choice Institutionalism.” In Political Science: The State of the Discipline, eds. Ira Katznelson and Helen Milner. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Wolfinger, Raymond, and Steven Rosenstone. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    政治研究所
    99252507
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0992525072
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Political Science ] Theses

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    507201.pdf3097KbAdobe PDF474View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback