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    Title: 台灣食品業國際化策略之研究-- 以進入清真市場為例
    Internationalization Strategies of Taiwanese Firms: The Case of the Halal Food Industry
    Authors: 黄欣怡
    Wong, Xinyi
    Contributors: 于卓民
    黄欣怡
    Xinyi Wong
    Keywords: 伊斯蘭市場
    清真食品
    台灣食品加工業
    國際化策略
    Halal Food
    Internationalization
    Halal Food Market
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2015-08-03 13:14:50 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 根據馬來西亞清真工業發展機構指出,伊斯蘭市場,亦稱為「清真市場」,其商機在未來十年內將有突破性的成長。在2012年清真相關產品全球貿易量達2.2兆美元,初步估計穆斯林市場能創造的商機是非常可觀的,而清真食品即佔了總量的57%。由此可見,隨著穆斯林人口的增長及消費能力的上升,此市場區隔的生活需求如食、衣、住、行或旅遊方面皆為會大大提升的,尤其是在飲食這一塊。

    儘管台灣在全球食品工業領域中以優秀及創新的加工技術佔有相當突出的地位。但是對於要進入商機日趨擴大的清真市場而言,除了加工技術及創新手法以外,更要多加留意的是伊斯蘭教義對於其食品相關民生用品的影響。然而,台灣業者在這一領域屬於新進入者,在實務及經驗上尚淺,因此本研究透過深入訪談蒐集目前正經營清真市場之台灣食品加工業者經驗,希望能夠提供未來台灣食品業者欲進入此市場前之實際參考。本研究將由業者申請清真認證動機切入,透過深度訪談方式瞭解其在清真認證的申請過程、市場與產品的選擇、進入模式以及其與地主國代理進口上的合作方式。

    本研究發現,大部分台灣業者主要動機多為因應海外客戶需求而開始申請清真認證以開拓更大的市場。其他動機還包括測試清真市場的潛力及自身產品是否符合全球市場(因穆斯林遍佈全球)。而在產品的選擇上業者多選擇以原物料較為單純的產品作為初期的出口商品,這顯示業者初期皆希望透過單純的產品線進行調整測試進入清真市場領域的可行性。然而,產品線調整過程中與供應商溝通及原物料替換等困難皆是目前業者共同及多數業者在申請清真認證上面臨的挑戰。

    在市場的選擇上,本研究發現業者多以穆斯林人口數較多的市場作為初期進入目標市場,例如印尼、馬來西亞及中東國家。這可看出業者希望由此提高增加大量客群及產品推廣的機會。在初期進入市場時,多數業者皆以進口商的方式將產品外銷到穆斯林國家。這表示業者一方面因為對當地伊斯蘭飲食文化尚為陌生,另一方面希望以測試市場的方式進入該國,因而選擇進口模式以降低風險。本研究也發現,若是業者認為該市場可持續經營,並且與地主國代理商在長期合作上建立了相互的信任及默契以後,便會與地主國進口商建立更深的合作關係,例如產品開發及推廣等投資活動。

    本研究亦提供欲進入清真食品市場之台灣業者實務上之建議,包括在取得清真認證以前業者應先符合各大食品安全規範以確保產品的安全及健康、以及外銷至清真市場的產品建議在產品口味及包裝上融合伊斯蘭文化,添加更多當地的文化特色,以故事包裝產品能夠更加貼近穆斯林消費者等。
    Living demands and needs of Islamic market has been agreatly enhance followed by the rise of world’s population and purchasing power of Muslim. According to Malaysia Halal Industry Development Corporation, Islamicmarket, which is also known as HalalMarket has an explosive growth in the coming ten years from observation ontrading value that has created 2.2 trillion U.S. dollar by relevance products of Halal market from 2012, which Halal foods sector has accounted for 57% in a largely part.

    Taiwanese firms have ranked in an outstanding position among the world’s food manufacturing industry with excellent manufacturing skills and creative products. Thoughin term of depth industry experiences, Halal foods manufacturing is another knowledge to process because of its specific diet requirement that influenced byIslam religion. With the basic requirementof a Halal certification on foods and drinks product, Taiwanese firms are facing challenges as a newer to the market especially a completely unfamiliar and differences in religion and culture, either in perception or practical experiences. Thus, this studies isprimarily aimed to provide informationand suggestions of obtaining a Halal certification and the internationalize strategy for Taiwanese food manufacturing firms that planning to enter Halal market through collecting practical experiences of threeon going firms and the organization which issue Halal certification in Taiwan. Within the paper explores and discusses the motivation of Taiwan firms applying Halal certification, product line selection, adjustment process and challenges during product line adjustment, foreign country entry mode, and the cooperation with local import agency.

    Research findingsare content in following paragraphs. First, the drive of mostly interviewed Taiwanese firmsbegan to apply Halal certification isadvised by their foreign customers whose are from Islamic country. Moreover, marketing potential testing and product testing in Islamic market could be other motivations. Second contribution of this research is the way of product selection to be adjusted into Islamic Market. Firms tend to select product line with simple material and manufacture process to adjust in the first stage. The reason of simplify is because Islamic food products require more complicated standard of the material uses and this allows firms to have time for market testing and improvement by lowering the risk of large investment at the beginning. Following the product line adjustment is the challenges that firms facing. Most common challenges would be difficulties on finding appropriate substitute material and the communication with suppliers are always time and cost consume.

    On a purpose to expand consumer base and product awareness, Taiwanese firms tend to export their productsinto large Muslim proportionof population country. During the initial stage, import agency is the mostly used entry mode among these firms. By import agency, products are able to get adaptquickly into the local market with local cultural. Despite a limited cooperation at the early stage, both parties has build trust and business tacit that drive to a deeper cooperation such as co-marketing and product development which meets more local demand after a long period collaboration with local import agency.

    This research also states that firms have to meet the basic foods manufacturing standard before applying strict religion certification for assuring consumer health.From the product perspective, develop localize product associate to Islamic culture and image will derive a large attraction from Muslim.In conclusion, the implicationsand suggestions for expanding business into Islamic country have been discussed elaborately in the paper.
    Reference: 一、中文部分
    (一) 文章及書籍

    李怡佩,「代理商品牌策略之探討」,國立政治大學國際貿易研究所,民國85年6月。
    吳陳環,代理商之理論與實務,台北:五南出版社,民國76年。
    董珮真,「不能錯過的伊斯蘭商機」,貿易雜誌,231,民國99年9月,16-18頁。
    黃瑞琴,「質的教育研究方」,台北:心理出版社,民國88年。
    麥嘉容, 「零售商在中國市場的進入模式」, 國立中山大學企業管理學研究所未出版碩士論文,民國91年。


    (二) 網路資料來源及報導

    台灣食品赴東南亞拓銷,http://www.taiwantrade.com.tw/CH/bizsearchdetail/7460182/C
    馬來西亞清真產業:飲食業以外的商機,
    http://economists-pick-research.hktdc.com/business-news/article/%E7%A0%94%E7%A9%B6%E6%96%87%E7%AB%A0/%E9%A6%AC%E4%BE%86%E8%A5%BF%E4%BA%9E%E6%B8%85%E7%9C%9F%E7%94%A2%E6%A5%AD-%E9%A3%B2%E9%A3%9F%E6%A5%AD%E4%BB%A5%E5%A4%96%E7%9A%84%E5%95%86%E6%A9%9F/rp/tc/1/1X000000/1X09Y7JW.htm
    進入伊斯蘭食品市場及其注意點,http://www.bia.org.tw/style/content/CN-02a/news_detail.asp?id=25009&thelev=2&lang=1&customer_id=1135&name_id=16664
    比中國更大的市場,瞄準穆斯林國家,http://www.mychinabusiness.com/magazine/1304/digest/digest_02.html
    凱馨公司致力於創造台灣土雞的藍海,http://blog.yam.com/gugugoo/article/16848235
    看好ASTEP商機,食品業赴星拓銷,http://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20140408004082-260410
    全球清真食品市場分析,
    https://www.academia.edu/3987680/Global_Halal_Food_Market
    台灣國際清真產品展
    https://www.halalexpo.com.tw/zh_TW/index.html

    二、英文部分
    (一) 期刊與論文
    Alserhan,Baker Ahmad (2011), The Principles of Islamic Marketing.UAE: Gower.
    Babbie, G., and Awa, N. E. (1998), Measuring Intercultural Effectiveness: An Integrative Approach.International Journal of Intercultural Relations 16: 311-328.
    Bello, D. C. and Lohtia, R. (1995), Export Channel Design: The Use of Foreign Distributors and Agents. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 23(5): 83-93
    Frank, Bradley and Gannon, Michael (2000), Does the Firm’s Technology and Marketing Profile Affect Foreign Market Entry?. Journal of International Marketing: 12-36.
    Horstman, I. J. and Markusen, J. R. (1996), Exploring New Markets; Direct Investment, Contractual Relations and the Multinational Exercise. International Economic Review 37 (1): 1–19.
    Hussnain,Syed Ali (2011), What Is Islamic Marketing.Global Journal 1(11-11):101.
    Klein S., G. L., Frazier and Roth, V. J. (1990), A Transaction Cost Analysis Model of Channel Integration in International Markets. Journal of Marketing Research 27(2): 196-208
    Lindzey(Ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
    Maccoby E. and Maccoby, N. (1954), The Interview: A Tool of Social Science. In: G.
    Minichiello V.﹐Aroni, R., Timewell E. and Alexander, L. (1995), In-depth interviewing. Second Edition, South Melbourne: Longman
    Pak Yong Suhk (2002), The Effect of Strategic Motives on the Choice of Entry Modes: An Empirical Test of International Franchisers.Multinational Business Review, Spring: 28-36.
    Pew Research Center’s. (2011), Forum on Religion & Public Life.The Future of the Global Muslim Population.
    Root, F. R. (1987), Entry Strategies for International Markets. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
    Saeed, Mohammad, Zafar U. Ahmed and Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda (1991), International Marketing Ethics from an Islamic Perspective: A Value- Maximization Approach. Journal of Business Ethics 32 (2): 127–42
    Wilson, Jonathan (2012), Looking at Islamic Marketing, Branding and Muslim Consumer Behavior beyond the 7P’s. Journal of Islamic Marketing 3 (3): 212-216

    (二) 英文資料來源
    Halal Food Production,
    http://www.crcnetbase.com/ISBN/9780203490082
    Islamic Marketing,
    http://islamicmarketing.org/what-is-islamic-marketing/
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    企業管理研究所
    102363119
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0102363119
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[企業管理研究所(MBA學位學程)] 學位論文

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