由於過去研究較少探討注意力訓練效果的神經機制，本研究希望結合ERP與MRI的腦神經生理指標，說明如果注意力訓練對社會焦慮有改善的效果，此效果於腦部的電生理及功能聯結結構上，會有何證據。希望藉著這樣的研究，提供注意力訓練療效的多元與更直接的證據。本研究的研究目的為：1.檢驗高低社會焦慮者在注意力偏誤的行為指標、ERP與fMRI指標上的差異。2.檢驗注意力訓練的效果，本研究探討高社會焦慮者接受注意力訓練後，其於前測、後測及追踪期中，在行為指標、ERP與fMRI等指標上，有無改變，並檢驗與低社會焦慮者的差異。3.本研究欲探討社會焦慮者對正向訊息的注意，究竟是缺乏處理，或是把其當成情價訊息，而如同面對負向訊息般的處理？因此透過注意力訓練中加入朝向正向臉孔的訓練，並檢驗其於前測、後測及追踪期中，在行為指標、ERP與fMRI等指標上，與朝向中性臉孔（亦即遠離威脅臉孔）訓練組的差異比較。4.比較作業態與靜息態兩者所得的fMRI腦功能性聯結分析結果之關聯性。本研究預計以三年的時間完成這些研究目的。 Research regarding to neurobiological mechanism of attentional training is scarce. This proposal integrates ERP and fMRI measures to illuminate the evidence of Neuro-Electronics and Functional Connectivity of the attentional training effects on social anxiety, if it works. We hope to more clearly present multidimensional and direct evidence on attentional training. The objectives for the current proposal are as follows. 1. Examining the differences of attentional bias between high- and low- socially anxious individuals on behavioural, ERP, and fMRI indices. 2. Examining the effects of attentional training on individuals with high social anxiety by comparing behavioural, ERP, and fMRI indices at pre-training, post-training, and follow-up phases, and by comparing those with individuals with low social anxiety. 3. Exploring whether the attentional bias on positive information in socially anxious individuals is due to lack of processing, or as valence of emotion (just like how they deal with negative information). We aid positive emotional faces in the attentional training in order to compare the differences between it and approaching neutral faces (i.e., avoiding threatening faces) on behavioural, ERP, and fMRI indices at pre-training, post-training, and follow-up phases. 4. Comparing the functional connectivity between the task state and resting state fMRI. We plan to complete these studies by three years.