|Abstract: ||同文同種的親和性與中國近年來對台灣在軍事、外交與經濟威脅，可能使台灣居民對中 國具有既正向又負向的態度（即矛盾心態）。本計畫檢驗兩類矛盾心態的腦部生理機制 與其可能影響。第一類為外顯矛盾心態，係指人們對中國可舉報出正、負向態度（即外 顯態度）。第二類為外顯－內隱矛盾心態，係指人們的外顯態度與無法舉報的態度（即 內隱態度）間正反不一致。第一年研究以調查法與內隱測驗確認台灣民眾對中國具有兩 類矛盾心態。第二年研究以行為實驗與fMRI 實驗檢驗兩類矛盾心態各自腦部的運作區 塊與其可預測對中國的政治行為。第三年研究透過情境設計引發矛盾心態，激發腦部活 化，以fMRI 技術確認腦部區塊與矛盾心態的因果關係。本計畫在學理上對矛盾心態深 入了解，在實務上可供我國與中國之外交考量。|
The historical, cultural, and ethnic ties with China and the threats from China on Taiwan’s national defense, diplomatic relations, and economy may render the Taiwanese with both positive and negative attitudes towards China (i.e., ambivalence). Recognizing such a delicate relationship between Taiwan and China, I propose to examine two types of ambivalence in terms of their physiological foundations and their consequences. The first type of ambivalence is termed explicit ambivalence, which indicates that perceivers can report both positive and negative attitudes towards China. The second type of ambivalence is termed explicit-implicit ambivalence, which indicates that there is a conflict between one’s explicit and implicit attitudes towards China. In the first year, I plan to investigate whether the Taiwanese hold ambivalence, either explicit or explicit-implicit, towards China. In the second year, I plan to examine physiological foundations of the two types of ambivalence using functional MRIs. At the same time, I develop certain incidents to examine whether the two types of ambivalence predict perceivers’ reported reactions towards China in the aforementioned incidents. In the third year, I plan to use situation cues to provoke perceivers’ positive attitude, negative attitude, or ambivalence towards China. By examining the activations of their brain areas using fMRIs, I investigate the causality between the physiological foundations and the two types of ambivalence. The proposal has both practical and theoretical merits. Practically, the findings can provide valuable information in understanding the Taiwanese interactions with the Chinese, such as in diplomatic relations and in economic activities. Theoretically, the findings can further our understanding of ambivalence in terms of its physiological foundations and its functions in political behaviors.