|Abstract: ||近年，歐美國家推行農業環境補貼、多功能農業、鄉村發展等策略，並肯認小農經 營的價值，推展以土地倫理為本的有機栽種方式，力求實踐永續發展。以德國巴伐利 亞邦為例，其致力於空間規劃納入永續農業政策，研訂農業環境補貼措施，發展可落 實土地倫理為本的多功能農業，及符合全球貿易架構的新時代農業政策，可謂績效卓 著。因此，本研究擬參酌該邦之經驗，探討未來我國當如何健全國土規劃體制，調整 農地利用與農業發展政策，適度提高國內的糧食自給率，兼顧農業多功能性與發展永 續農業，以促進城鄉農業發展。 以往，我國農業政策因應客觀環境而屢有變遷，如:農地農有農用政策、放寬農有落 實農用政策、調整稻田轉作、休耕、擴大農場經營策略、引進有機農業作法、農村再 生策略，然其促進城鄉農業發展的成效往往難以彰顯。有鑑於我國仍屬以小農為主的 農業經營方式，長年面臨欠缺現代化經營管理、生產成本過高、銷售通路欠缺之困境， 如何研擬有效政策是為當務之急。因此，本研究擬從宏觀面、微觀面，藉文獻探討、 實地訪查、問卷調查、政策分析等研究方法，提出並評估以小農為核心、適合我國推 行、本於土地倫理、發揮多功能性之永續農業政策，納入國土規劃體制，以增進城鄉 發展。|
European Countries and USA applied strategies such as agricultural environmental subsidy, multifunctional agriculture, rural development, and so on in recent years. They strived for sustainable development via recognising the value of small farmers and promoting organic cultivation based on land ethics. This study takes State of Bavaria, Germany as an example. The state adopted efficient and practical spatial planning which met up with global agricultural trading policy for brining into sustainable agriculture policy, measures of agricultural environmental subsidy, and multifunctional agriculture based on land ethics. Therefore, this study attempts to refer to Bavarian experience, realising how our government improves a sound national land planning, adjusts farmland use and agricultural development policy, raise the ratio of food self-sufficiency; meanwhile, it is necessary to look after both multifunctional agriculture and sustainable agriculture for advancing urban-rural agricultural development. To cope with environmental changing, our national agricultural policy varies from “policy of farmland owned by farmers and used for farming”, “policy of loosing farmland owned by farmers and fulfilling farmland only used for farming”, “strategy for adjusting paddy transformation, fallow, and expanding farmland size”, “introducing organic agricultural cultivation”, and “strategy of rural renewal”. However, the effect of advocacy of urban-rural agricultural development is invisible. Moreover, small farmer is still the main measure of agricultural operation that it is lack of modern management, lack of labour force, having high productive cost, lack of selling channels, lack of creativity and vigorousness, and other plights. Therefore, this study starts from macro and micro aspects via research methods such as literature review, investigation, questionnaire, policy analysis, and so on. Also, this study proposes evaluation based on small farmer, which is a sustainable agricultural policy appropriate to promote in our nation, based on land ethics, and bringing into multifunctional agriculture. Such policy not only contains national land planning mechanism but also improves urban-rural development.