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    Title: 專利法中「所屬技術領域中具有通常知識者」標準之法學實證研究
    Other Titles: Emperical Legal Study on the Standard of Phosity (Person Having Ordinary Skill in the Art) in the Patent Law
    Authors: 宋皇志
    Contributors: 科技管理與智慧財產研究所
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-08-05 11:11:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在現代專利法制中,「發明所屬技術領域中具有通常知識者」(下稱「通常知識者」) 是一個相當重要之概念,例如專利進步性之審查,即係以「通常知識者」作為客 觀之判斷標準。既為客觀標準,專利專責機關或法院在審酌發明是否具有進步性 時,應先確定此客觀標準以作為審酌之依據。然我國法院判決中從未具體認定「通 常知識者」之能力或學經歷標準究竟如何,亦未曾說明法院於審判中係如何「虛 擬」成「通常知識者」以進行進步性與否之判斷。 此重要之法律議題在國內外之學術研究中皆未詳細論述。本研究計畫目的之一在 於研究專利審查官、法官與技審官係如何決定「通常知識者」之技術水準?目的 之二在於研究審查官、法官與技審官係如何將自己「虛擬成」通常知識者,其中 大多數法官必須「向上虛擬」,而大多數專利審查官與技術審查官必須「向下虛 擬」。目的之三及在於從專利法之學理出發,為我國專利實務界研究出一套判斷 基準:(一)如何決定通常知識者之技術水準;(二)審查官、法官與技審官如何 將自己虛擬成該通常知識者之技術水準。唯有此判斷標準能夠確立,才能確保我 國專利進步性之審查有一客觀且齊一之判斷標準。 本研究之研究方法擬採社會科學中之質性研究,進行深度訪談,以瞭解法官、專 利審查官與技術審查官於審判或審查實務中是否具體確定「通常知識者」之技術 水準,以及如何於審判或審查實務中「向上虛擬」或「向下虛擬」;接下來依據 紮根理論(grounded theory),對訪談資料進行開放性編碼(coding)、歸類並進 行深入分析,期待在專利法學理上有所突破,並作為實務工作者審判時之參考。
    PHOSITA (person having ordinary skill in the art) is a very important concept in the current Patent Law. For example, PHOSITA is the objective standard for determining whether a patent is non-obvious. Accordingly, whenever the patent authorities or courts examine the non-obviousness of a patent, they need to determine the technology level of PHOSITA first. However, a review of our courts’ decisions shows that our courts have never identified the PHOSITA’s skill/experience level, nor explained in the decisions to illustrate how to judge the non-obviousness of the patent-in-suit in the viewpoint of the PHOSITA. A review of domestic and international research articles shows that this legal issue has never completely studied. The first step of this research project is to study how the patent examiners at the IP Office and the Judges/Technology Officers at the IP Court (hereinafter “the Decision Makers”) decide the skill level of PHOSITA. Second, this research project desires to study how the Decision Makers judge the non-obviousness of the patent-in-suit in the viewpoint of the PHOSITA. Finally, this research project hopes to theoretically constitute a guideline to provide an objective and universal standard for the determinations of (1) the PHOSITA’s level and (2) the non-obviousness of a patent from the PHOSITA’s point of view. The research method of this project is to conduct a qualitative study. First, this research will conduct deep interviews with ten of the Decision Makers. Second, this research will follow the grounded theory to code and analyze the interview materials, in order to make achievements both in academic theory and in real practice.
    Relation: MOST103-2410-H004-008
    PF10305-0002
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理與智慧財產研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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