English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 91280/121421 (75%)
Visitors : 25396184      Online Users : 82
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/77575
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/77575

    Title: 探討遊戲中置入廣告之廣告效果─ 以「大家來找碴」為例
    The advertising effects of in-game advertising:an example of Spot-the-Difference games
    Authors: 張李竹
    Contributors: 顏乃欣
    Keywords: 遊戲置入廣告
    in-game advertising
    change blindness
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2015-08-17 14:11:30 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究欲了解「大家來找碴」(Spot the Differences)此類偵測作業的遊戲在設計時應注意的元素為何?兩個實驗皆為參與者內設計,在實驗一中操弄產品置入在遊戲畫面中的聚焦區(area of interest, AOI)與否,以及產品是否為遊戲目標,測量偵測的正確率、反應時間和再認表現,以檢視產品置入在遊戲中是否能吸引注意力?結果發現當產品置入在聚焦區時的反應時間快於在非聚焦區。當產品是遊戲目標時的再認表現,優於不是遊戲目標時;而當產品位在非聚焦區時的再認表現,會優於廣告在聚焦區時。然而,實驗一中的產品並未包含商標,為進一步探討探討廣告效益,在實驗二中加入有商標的廣告商品,並使用眼動儀,測量參與者對商品的眼動處理模式,如凝視時間(fixation duration)與凝視次數(number of fixation),並請參與者評估對商品的喜好程度和購買意圖。結果發現商品置入在聚焦區的反應時間顯著快於非聚焦區,但商品置入在非聚焦區時的再認表現、喜好程度和購買意圖皆優於置入在聚焦區時。眼動的結果發現,商品是遊戲目標時和在聚焦區時有更長的凝視時間和更多的凝視次數。依據實驗一與實驗二的結果顯示,參與者有可能是在無意識受到商品曝光的影響而產生廣告效果,建議未來研究可加入內隱指標探討當商品位在非聚焦區時的廣告效果,以提供更直接的證據驗證。
    The purpose of this study is to investigate what elements that we should notice when we design kind of Spot-the-Differences games. Two within-subject-designed experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, we manipulated the location of products(area-of-interest or non-area-of-interest)and the type of products(target or non-target)to examine how products attract our attention in in-game advertising.. The results of experiment 1 showed that when products were in the AOI, the reaction times were shorter than those in non-AOI. However, participants could recognize the products better when they were in non-AOI. Furthermore, participants could recognize the products better when products were the targets than non-targets in the game. In order to investigate the effect of in-game advertising, in experiment 2, we added trade mark and used an eye tracker to examine the role of visual attention in-game advertising. Besides, we used liking and purchase intention as an index of advertising effects. The results of experiment 2 showed that products that were in the AOI attracted participants' attention more quickly. However, products in non-AOI showed better recognition performance, liking and purchase intention than those in AOI. The results of eye movements showed that longer fixation duration and more fixation number was observed for targets than for non-targets. According to the results, the effects of advertisement may be resulted from participants being exposed for products in an unconscious manner. Future studies could add the index of unconscious processing to clarify the implicit effects of in-game advertising.
    Reference: 石子(2013)。可口可樂在香港,結合手機APP,電視廣告與社群力量的經典行
    香港味千拉麵(2013)。AJISEN RAMEN HK。(http://ppt.cc/~rgt)。
    鮪魚星球人(2011)。小孩開小車!Toyota推出做給小孩玩的app:Backseat Driver。(http://ppt.cc/QghY)。
    Adams, R. J.(1987). An evaluation of color preference in early infancy. Infant
    Behavior & Development,10, 143-150.
    Balasubramanian, Siva K.(1994).Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid
    Messages and Public Policy Issues, Journal of Advertising, 23( 4), 29-46.
    Barker, C., & Gronne, P.(1996).Advertising on the web. Masters thesis,
    Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School.
    Chandon, P., Morwitz, V. G.., and Reinartz, W. J.(2005).Do Intentions Really
    Predict Behavior? Self-Generated Validity Effects in Survey Research, Journal
    of Marketing, 69(2), 1-14.
    Dodds, W. B., K. B. Monroe, & D. Grewal, (1991). Effect of Price, Brand and Store
    Information on Buyer’s Product Evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research. 28(3),307-319.
    D’Astous, A. and Seguin, N.(1999)Consumer Reactions to Product Placement
    Strategies in Television Sponsorship, European Journal of Marketing, 33(9/10),
    E. Fukuba, H. Kitagaki, A. Wada, K. Uchida, S. Hara, T. Hayashi, K. Oda, and N.
    Uchida, (2009), Brain Activation during the Spot the Differences Game,"Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences, 8, 23-32.
    Gross, M. L.(2010). Advergames and the effects of game-product congruity,
    Computers in Human Behavior, 2(6), 1259-1265
    Gupta, Pola B. & Lord, K. R.,(1998)Product Placement in Movies: The Effect of
    Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 20(1), 47-59.
    Henderson, J. M., & Hollingworth, A.(1999). The role of fixation position in  
    detecting scene changes across saccades. Psychological Science, 10, 438-443.
    Hollingworth, A., Schrock, G., & Henderson, J. M.(2001). Change detection in the
    flicker paradigm: The role of fixation position within the scene. Memory &
    Cognition, 29, 296-304.
    Hoffman, J. E., & Subramaniam, B.(1995). The role of visual attention in saccadic
    eye movements. Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 787-795.
    Hudson, Simon & Hudson, David,(2006),Branded Entertainment: A New
    Advertising Technique or Product Placement in Disguise?, Journal of Marketing
    Management, 22, 489-504.
    Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and Effort. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Karrh, James A.,(1998)Brand Placement: A Review, Journal of Current Issues
    and Research in Advertising, 20(2), 31-49.
    Kevin, W., Bolls, P., Kim, H., Venkataraman, A., Meyer, R.(2008).Enjoyment of
    Advergames and Brand Attitudes: the Impact of Thematic Relevance, Journal of
    Interactive Advertising,9(1),27-36.
    Kotler, P.(1994). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation,
    and control (8th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Lavidge, R. J., & Steiner, G. A.(1961). A model for predictive measurements of
    advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 25(6), 59-62.
    Lang, A.(2000). The limited capacity model of mediated message processing.
    Journal of Communication, 50(1), 46-70.
    Levin, D. T., & Simons, D. J. (1997). Failure to detect changes to attended objects in
    motion pictures. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 501-506.
    Lee, Mira & Faber, Ronald J.,(2007)Effect of Product Placement in On-Line
    Games on Brand Memory, Journal of Advertising, 36(4), 75-90.
    Luck S.J. &Vecera S.P.(2002).Attention. In H. Pashler and S. Yantis (eds.),
    Stevens’s Handboo’k of Experimental Psychology(3rd Ed.),1 , 235-286, New
    York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Mandler, G., Nakamura, Y., & Van Zandt, B. J.(1987). Nonspecific effects of
    exposure on stimuli that cannot be recognized. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 646-648.
    Morwitz, V. G., & Schmittlein, D.(1992)Using segmentation to improve sales
    forecasts based on purchase intent: Which "intenders" actually buy? Journal of
    Marketing Research, 29(4), 391-405.
    McConkie, G.W., & Zola, D.(1979). Is visual information integrated across
    successive fixations in reading? Perception &Psychophysics, 25, 221-224.
    Phillips, W.A.(1974). On the distinction between sensory storage and short-term
    visual memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 283-290.
    Pieters, R., Rosbergen, E., & Wedel, M. (1999). Visual attention to repeated print
    advertising: A test of scanpath theory. Journal of Marketing Research,36(4),
    Nelson, Michelle R.,(2002).Recall of Brand Placements in Computer/Video
    Games,Journal of Advertising Research, 42(2), 80-92.
    Posner, M. I.(1980). Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental 
    Psychology, 32(1), 3–25.
    Rayner, K.,(1998).Eye movements in reading and in information processing:20
    years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372-422.
    Rensink, R. A., O`Regan, J. K., & Clark, J. (1997). To see or not to see: The need for
    attention to perceive changes in scenes. Psychological Science, 8, 368-373.
    Rensink, R. A.(2002)Change detection, Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 245-277.
    Ravi, D. (1999). Comparison effects on preference construction. Journal of
    Consumer Research, 26(3): 293-306.
    Rizzolatti, G., Riggio, L., Dascola, I., &Umilta, C.(1987). Reorienting attention
    across the horizontal and vertical meridians: evidence in favor of a premotor
    theory of attention. Neuropsychologia, 25(1A), 31-40.
    Russell, Cristel A.(1998)Toward a Framework of Product Placement: Theoretical
    Propositions, Advances in Consumer Research, 25,357-362.
    Schiffman, L .G. and L. L. Kanuk,(2000). Consumer Behavior, Upper Saddle River,
    N.J: Prentice Hall.
    Schneider, W., Dumais, S. T., & Shiffrin, R. M.(1984). Automatic and control
    processing and attention. In R. Parasuraman& D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of
    Attention. (pp.1-27). Orlando, FL: Academic
    Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information
    processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84(1),1-66.
    Shapiro, Stewart A. and Jesper H. Nielsen(2013).What the Blind Eye Sees:
    Incidental Change Detection as a Source of Perceptual Fluency, Journal of
    Consumer Research, 39(6), 1202-1218.
    Simons, D. J. &Ambinder, M. S.(2005). Change blindness: Theory and 
    Consequences. Current Direction Psychological Science, 14, 44-48
    Simons, D. J., & Levin, D. T.(1998). Failure to detect changes to people during a
    real-world interaction. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 5, 644-649.
    Spears, N. and Singh, S. N., (2004). Measuring attitude toward the brand and
    purchaseintentions, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising,
    26(2), 53-66.
    Sukoco, B. M. and Wu, W. Y.(2011)The effects of advergames on consumer
    telepresence andattitudes: A comparison of products with search and experience
    attributes.ExpertSystems with Applications, 38(6),7396-7406.
    Winkler, T. & Buckner, K.(2006). Receptiveness of gamers to embedded brand
    messages in advergames: Attitudes towards product placement. Journal of
    interactive Advertising, 7(1), 37-46.
    Wise, K. &Bolls,Paul D. & Kim, H. &Venkataraman, A. & Meyer, R.(2008).
    Enjoyment of advergames and brand attitudes: The impact of thematic relevance.
    Journal of Interactive Advertising,9(1), 27‐36.
    Description: 碩士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0997520122
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    012201.pdf3247KbAdobe PDF0View/Open

    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    社群 sharing

    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback