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    Title: 兩性的職業地位取得與職業性別組成:社會資本效應
    Gender Differences in Status Attainment and Gender Compositions of Occupations: Social Capital Effect
    Authors: 李怡青
    Li, Yi Ching
    Contributors: 熊瑞梅
    李怡青
    Li, Yi Ching
    Keywords: 職業性別化
    職業地位
    社會資本
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2015-08-24 09:57:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 台灣勞動力市場長期一直存在兩性職業不平等的現象,從找工作、職位升遷、薪資高低都一再反應出兩性在勞動力市場的差異。另一方面,隨著台灣教育的普及,女性進入勞動力市場的比例逐漸增高,兩性在職業薪資、升遷仍有明顯的性別差異,更是延伸至性別職業隔離,區分為男性標籤與女性標籤的職業(張晉芬2002;Bielby and Baron 1986; Kilbourne et al. 1994)。職業出現性別選擇偏好,從求職者、僱主到公司組織,女性甚至考量到未來婚育生活,逐漸陷入職業與性別結合的框架。過往研究兩性勞動力市場,較少探討社會資本與兩性勞動力市場的職位地位取得關係,本研究將採用中研院計畫 「社會資本的建構與效應:台灣、中國大陸、美國三地追蹤研究」的調查資料,分析2004年與2007年兩波的台灣資料調查,從兩性職業選擇的類型、職業性別化現象、職業地位與社會資本的關係,來探討職位地位取得過程與社會資本對兩性選擇職業的影響。
    本研究主要研究發現有以下幾點:首先,職位地位取得的性別差異仍存在,社會資本對性別職業影響不大,但在服務產業的職位地位取得需依靠社會資本。第二,勞動力市場的職業性別化現象,透過職位地位取得仍出現性別偏好,男性偏好選擇男性比例較高的職業,女性偏好選擇女性比例較高的職業(張晉芬 2002;Lin 1989),而社會資本對職業性別化流動的影響不明顯,僅對於男性流動到女性比例較高的職業影響大。第三,職業地位的性別差異,在初階管理職的兩性職業地位比例差異不大,反而在中高階管理職的職業地位,男性占比高於女性。其中社會資本對職業地位的影響,以初階管理職的影響最大,無論男女若要提升職業地位至初階管理職,皆須具備有豐富的社會資本。
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