This article employs reassurance theory to explore the question of how trust can be built between China and Taiwan, suggesting that a major breakthrough in cross-Strait relations will not be possible unless these two historical rivals reassure each other through costly signals. This paper tentatively assesses a number of costly signals that Beijing or Taipei might make to elicit trust from the other side. Given that China's political system has an intrinsic credibility problem, Beijing will have to bear more costs than Taipei if its reassurances are to be credible. However, China's superior power gives it more leverage in promoting a cross-Strait trust-building process. Although such a trust-building approach would entail certain costs and risks for both Beijing and Taipei, it is a worthwhile enterprise for the sake of peace and reconciliation across the Taiwan Strait.