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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/79272
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/79272


    Title: 晚明到清初的福州城
    The Fuzhou City from the late Ming to the early Qing Empire
    Authors: 陳怡行
    Contributors: 張哲郎
    陳怡行
    Keywords: 福州
    晚明
    清初
    十七世紀
    福建省城
    Fuzhou
    late Ming
    early Qing
    the seventeenth century
    Fujiang Province
    Date: 2015
    Abstract: 本研究旨在探明福建省城福州於十七世紀所面臨的各項挑戰與轉折,尤其是福州如何因應明清兩朝交替的重大歷史變局,並分別從下列幾個面向進行探討。
    首先,討論明清易代過程對福州所造成的影響。福州在十七世紀之初,先是作為明朝的福建省城,其次成為隆武政權的首都,隨即轉為滿州控制下的省城,再接著則是靖南王所控制的王城。直到十七世紀的後半期,伴隨著清朝平定台灣之後,福州所管轄的範圍擴大至福建及台灣兩地,臺灣海峽遂成中國內海。故可知,福州在十七世紀的城市地位伴隨著漫長的易代過程而有不同的變化。
    其次,從海洋的角度來觀看福州發現,福州在東亞海域一系列的貿易節點中,扮演相當重要的角色。也就是說,當我們自海洋往陸地觀看時,福州城所代表的意義與單純從福州自身出發,或者是從陸地的觀點來理解有很大的不同。雖然福州在易代之際因幾次的城市攻防戰而數度遭受嚴重破壞,但城市之所以能夠再度興盛,與其在東亞海域貿易網絡所扮演的角色,促使城市得以迅速復原,兩者之間有著絕對的關連。
    再者,探究城市在十七世紀所面臨的挑戰。福州在易代之際,受到戰爭的破壞,不僅城市人口大幅減少,城市周邊地區也遭受到大規模的破壞,因而面臨極大危機。此外,十七世紀也是東亞海域周邊國家及地區重新整合的時期,國際貿易網絡起伏不定,再加上清廷採行海禁、遷界政策,城市商業機能遭受極大幾乎難以維持。然而,在如此的困難時期,城市商人仍然透過走私貿易維持商業活動,使得城市得以維持有限度的運作。是故,十七世紀對於福州而言,不僅是城市發展上的重大挫折,也使得十六世紀以來城市不斷擴張的趨勢轉向萎縮。
    最後,觀察城市空間在十七世紀所發生的變化。晚明以來,福州城市擴張主要呈現在城牆之外,沿閩江岸不斷擴張的商業區,城牆之內的空間格局基本固定不變。但是,到了易代之際,清朝為因應戰爭需求,城牆之內的空間格局發生重大變化。滿州人在城中匡圈出一塊區域,作為八旗駐防之用的城中之城,即滿城。除此,城牆之外的商業區因數度受到戰爭破壞,規模大幅萎縮。直到十七世紀後期,清廷底定福建之後,城外商業區才漸次恢復。
    總之,十七世紀是中國城市發展的重要轉折時期,透過本研究大致呈現福州在這個時期所面臨的挑戰及其因應模式。
    This dissertation investigates how residents in the capital of Fujiang Province—the Fuzhou City—coped with changes and challenges to their city in the seventeenth century, especially with the socio-political turbulences regarding to the dynastic transition from the Ming to the Qing Empire. The study focuses on following aspects.
    First, it discusses the effects of dynastic transition from the Ming to the Qing Empire. In the early seventeenth century, the political status of Fuzhou changed a few times from the province capital city of Fujiang of the Ming Empire, to the capital city of the Longwu Regime, to a province capital city of the Manchu Empire, and then to the capital of King Jingnan’s territory. In the latter seventeenth century, the Qing Empire conquered Taiwan, and Fuzhou thence became a regional administrative center of an extensive area including Fujiang and Taiwan. In due course, the Taiwan Strait turned into internal waters of China. In this view, the status of Fuzhou changed in correspondence with the political struggle in the dynastic transition.
    Second, the study examines Fuzhou from the perspective of maritime economics and trade, and finds that the city played a key role in the maritime trading network of East Asia. To put it differently, this perspective enables a different understanding of Fuzhou than the one from a terrestrial perspective or an introverting one focusing on the city per se. As Fuzhou had been demolished several times during battles and sieges in the dynastic transition in the seventeenth century, it could be shortly rebuilt and could timely regain its prosperity, largely due to its position in the East Asian trading network. The recovering capacity was inseparable from the trading economics.
    Third, this research investigates challenges presented to the residents in Fuzhou in the seventeenth century. During the transitional period, Fuzhou lost a great portion of its population due to warfare, and its vicinities also suffered from large-scale destruction. The city was consequently in great peril. In the seventeenth century, Asian countries and regimes commonly underwent a reorganization process. International economics of the maritime network at the time was disrupted. Moreover, the Qing Empire’s later implementation of Haijing policy and Great Clearance further worsened the economic situation. In the end, residents in Fozhou could barely sustain their commercial activities. Nonetheless, urban merchants managed to maintain the commercial activities through smuggling trade, and retained a minimal level of such urban functions. Overall, Fuzhou encountered great difficulties in urban development, and the consistent trend of urban expansion and growth from the sixteenth century withered out in the seventeenth century.
    Last, this study explores the changes of urban spaces in the seventeenth century. Since the late Ming dynasty, the urban growth largely happened in the areas outside the city walls. The commercial districts restlessly mushroomed along the Ming River. By contrast, the urban fabrics of the inner city inside the city walls largely remained the same. The Qing Empire however changed the spatial patterns of the inner city greatly in order to accommodate the needs of war during the dynastic transition. Manchus encircled an area of the inner city to be the compound of the Eight Banners. This walled city inside the inner city was known as Mancheng District. In addition, the commercial districts outside the original city walls were destroyed several times in battles and thereafter significantly diminished. These commercial districts can only gradually revived after the Qing Empire excised full control over the Fujiang Province in the latter seventeenth century.
    In general, the seventeenth century is the transitional period of Chinese cities and urban development, and this study presents the challenges of urban growth and means of urban sustainability in Fuzhou in this period.
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    歷史學系
    95153503
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0095153503
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 學位論文

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