A large amount of research has recently emerged about how work-related behaviors (or attitudes) contribute to performance or service quality. However, previous efforts lacked study of how political factors mediate their casual relationship. In addition, no research intends to compare their similarity and difference of work attitudes and work behaviors across government levels. We need more empirical evidences to tell how and why they work differently. This research analyzes how political factors mediate the relationship of leadership, work ethics, and accountability on perceived performance, or perceived service quality, made up of our theoretical framework. Using 2008 Taiwan Government Bureaucrat Survey (TGBS) data, 1027(central government) and 935 (local government) career civil servants were analyzed with multiple-group structural equation modeling (SEM). This research found political factors significantly mediate the relationships among leadership, work ethics, and perceived performance, or perceived service quality. As well, this research also found the significant difference of career civil servants between central - and local government in terms of our theoretical framework. This research indeed advances the knowledge, especially to the mediation of political factors, and the influences of government levels. Some research limitations and future research also were discussed in this research.