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    題名: 1979年伊朗革命與想像的伊斯蘭政府
    其他題名: The Iranian Revolution in 1979 and The Imagined Islamic Government
    作者: 陳立樵
    Chen, Li-Chiao
    關鍵詞: 1979年伊朗革命;巴勒維;何梅尼;宗教學者的政治管理
    Iran revolution in 1979;Pahlavi;Khomeini;Valeyat-e Faqih
    日期: 2009-05-15
    上傳時間: 2015-12-29 11:05:01 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 1979年伊朗革命後,由於宗教人士何梅尼掌政的緣故,使研究者的觀點傾向於從宗教的立場來解釋這個事件,特別著眼於:革命前的巴勒維政府破壞伊斯蘭信仰、群眾為了信仰而抗爭、以及何梅尼掌政代表伊斯蘭力量復興。本文則試圖跳脫以宗教立場為主的歷史解釋,呈現不同面向的1979年伊朗革命。從1960年代起,伊朗的巴勒維國王藉由諸多改革政策,表達對於國家歷史與傳統的立場。從土地改革裡,讓人民可擁有自己的土地,以追求伊斯蘭信仰中的公平與正義。從宗教教育推廣之中,讓更多人能夠更深入瞭解伊斯蘭,以表示對信仰之尊敬。由於古波斯擁有光榮的歷史地位,巴勒維國王舉辦波斯帝國2500年的慶典,強調現今伊朗將有如古波斯一樣偉大。不過,民間的輿論總是受政府壓抑,例如宗教界不滿巴勒維國王的伊斯蘭觀點,以及知識份子批判政府不重視人權。於是,當1977年國王推動「自由化政策」之後,反政府聲浪在短時間內擴散開來。巴勒維國王試圖穩定局勢,換首相、換政策,卻沒有明顯的效果,最後與反政府人士妥協,放下權位離開伊朗。何梅尼藉著反政府運動之中獲得的支持度,掌握了權力,以「一切符合真主旨意」的口號,在建立政體的公投活動或是制定憲法的過程中,讓自己的權力合理化,甚至若他人言行與何梅尼的標準不合,便冠上伊斯蘭叛徒之名。革命前後,無論國王或何梅尼,都在追求符合真主旨意的理想境界,雙方對於伊斯蘭信仰都表示敬意。然而何梅尼強調的伊斯蘭政府,卻藉著共和政體、憲法、總統與政黨選舉來呈現,實質上都承繼西方或巴勒維政府既有體制。而且,伊朗歷史上從未有宗教人士掌政的先例,故何梅尼所建立的「符合真主旨意」之政府,不過是「想像」而來的伊斯蘭政府。
    The Iranian revolution in 1979 is regarded as an Islamic revolution because Ayatollah Khomeini possessed the political power. The clergy’s position is that the former government, Pahlavi, destroyed Islamic tradition and spirit, people protested against Pahlavi for Islam, and Khomeini held the political power meant the revival of Islam. Actually, the explanation of the Iranian revolution could not be seen merely via the clergy’s opinion. During 1960’s and 70’s, the Shah, Pahlavi implemented many reforms with his view of Iranian history and tradition. First, he considered ‘land reform,’ making tenants to have their own lands, could reach the justice and equality of Islam. Second, he said establishing Religious Corps is to pay respects to Islam and create a stable society. In 1971, he honored the glory of Persia with 2500-year anniversary because Modern Iran was from ancient Persia. During 1960s and 70s, the public opinion, such as discontents of religious and intellectuals, was suppressed. Hence, as Liberalization Policy in 1977 was released, the public opinion became an oppositional power. Although the Shah tried to steady protests by replacing Prime Ministers and renewing policies, there were no critical effects. Eventually, the Shah made deals with opposites and left Iran. Ayatollah Khomeini, who reached to the leading status by the resisting atmosphere, held political power. He made his status reasonable not only by speaking out what we do meets the will of Allah when drawing up the constitution or holding the referendum, but also by criticizing others who are betrayers because they are not with us. Both the Shah and Khomeini, who honored Islam, tried to establish an ideal Islamic country. However, what Khomeini did, like founding the Republic, drawing up the constitution, and proceeding elections, which were based on the system of West or Pahlavi, only the name was related to Islam. Furthermore, it’s the first time that religious had political power in Iranian history. Therefore, Khomein’s Islamic government is not the revival of tradition, was his imagination.
    關聯: 第三、四屆中東與伊斯蘭研討會論文集
    主辦單位:國立政治大學阿拉伯語文學系, 國立政治大學伊斯蘭文明與思想研究中心
    資料類型: conference
    顯示於類別:[2009第三、四屆中東與伊斯蘭研討會論文集] 會議論文

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