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    Title: 武漢「行風連線」中的公眾回應性探討:新三明治式官僚控制
    Authors: 蘇偉業;王敬智
    Contributors: 公行系
    Keywords: 公眾回應性;群眾路線;官僚主義;課責交待;responsiveness to the public;mass line;bureaucratism;accountability
    Date: 2015-03
    Issue Date: 2016-02-19 15:08:03 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 受到西方公共行政理論影響,中國大陸各地方政府近年皆有試驗各種強化回應民眾之措施。本文以武漢市的「行風連線」網站作為分析對象,剖析中共在建立對公眾的回應性(responsiveness to the public)的涵義。建立對公眾的回應性在中國大陸絕非嶄新的概念,中共建國以來的政治歷史很大部分是圍繞著如何打擊「官僚主義」這議題上發展,「官僚主義」代表著幹部脫離群眾的問題。在毛澤東時代,中共理解官僚主義是受資產階級和封建主義思想餘毒影響所產生的問題,必須透過由上而下的思想教育、下放勞動及發動群眾由下而上進行監督這種「三明治方式」來進行整治。但在改革開放時代,中共已不再強調意識形態鬥爭,群眾運動也逐漸退卻。中共開始傾向以由上而下的「管理」及「有秩序引導」模式來整治官僚問題。但群眾並沒有被排除在外,新的「群眾路線」正成為中共監督官僚機制的一部分。最終結合形成一種「新三明治式」的官僚控制模式。武漢市「行風連線」網站是近年該市監察局建立的意見反映電子網路平台,該網站受理相關政府機關及公用事業政風行風問題的舉報投訴、政策諮詢和意見建議。被針對單位必須直接且限期回應民眾所提出的問題或舉報,民眾張貼的內容及相關單位的答覆皆公開於網站,投訴人並可以針對所收到的回覆給予滿意度評價。本文嘗試透過分析該網站自2011 年4 月至2012 年3 月31 日的一年份資料內容,以官僚回應性概念透視當今中共官僚行為,以及當今大陸民眾參與公共治理的性質,藉此回答中國大陸在處理官僚主義問題的轉變程度。
    Partly driven by the western public administration theory, local governments in China have been experimenting with measures for enhancing the responsiveness to the public. This paper makes use of the online platform “Work Style on Line” in Wuhan as a case to probe into implications of building up such responsiveness mechanism for the Chinese Communist Party(CCP). Building responsiveness to the public should not be considered a brandnew concept in Communist China. Ever since the founding of the People’s Republic, its political history, to a large extent, has been built around the issue of anti-bureaucratism. Bureaucratism marks alienation of party cadres from the masses. In the Mao Zedong era, the party perceived bureaucratism as a problem caused by residual poisons left by the thoughts of bourgeois and feudalism. It had to be rectified by a “sandwich” attack through a top-down thought education, laboring and a bottom-up public monitoring through mass mobilization. However, during the reform era, the CCP no longer embraced ideological struggles and mass campaigns faded out. The CCP has been shifting to a top-down management approach and ordered steering to address the issue. However, the masses have not been excluded from the new movement. A new “mass line” is forming as a part of the CCP’s watchdog. Both combine to form a neo-sandwich bureaucratic control model. “Work Style on Line” in Wuhan is an online platform established by the Supervision Bureau of the city for citizens to voice feedback and opinions. The platform allows citizens to lodge complaints, inquiries and opinions with government agencies and public utilities. Government agencies and public utilities are required to respond to the netizens within a stipulated response time. Contents posted by netizens and the official responses are openly available on the website. The complainants can rate a satisfaction level of those responses. This paper analyzes a dataset downloaded from the platform (from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2012), examining bureaucratic behaviors from the perspective of bureaucratic responsiveness, and the nature of civic engagement in China to help project the degree of change in addressing the issue of bureaucratism.
    Relation: 中國大陸研究, 58(1), 103-127
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[公共行政學系] 期刊論文
    [中國大陸研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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