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    Title: 中國的衛生外交: 以中國對莫三比克的衛生外交為個案探討
    China’s Health Diplomacy: China’s Health Diplomacy in Mozambique as a Case Study
    Authors: 陳珮瑜
    Chen, Pei Yu
    Contributors: 姜家雄
    Chiang, Jia Xiong
    陳珮瑜
    Chen, Pei Yu
    Keywords: 中國
    中國醫療隊
    非洲
    莫三比克
    軟實力
    衛生外交
    醫療外交
    China
    Chinese medical team
    Africa
    Mozambique
    Soft power
    Health diplomacy
    Medical diplomacy
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-03-01 10:53:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:  中國自1963年向阿爾及利亞派遣第一支醫療隊以來,穩定對非洲發展衛生外交,近年來漸吸引中國及外國學者注意,然基於中國對外援的保密性,以及衛生外交未成顯學,對於中國在非洲衛生外交的狀況因此缺乏資料,本文以現有研究結果為基礎,蒐集和整理中國官方資料,描繪出中國在非洲衛生外交發展、規模及樣態。中國藉由衛生外交在非洲取得可觀利益,包括政治方面,如非洲國家支持中國取代台灣在聯合國席位、為中國人權議題護航以及在兩岸議題上支持中國立場;經濟方面,如以衛生外交打進非洲市場,引入中國製藥品以及以醫療物資換取非洲國家資源;軟實力方面:提升中國形象,促進中非在其他方面的合作。然中國在非洲衛生外交也面臨不少挑戰,包括中國國內醫生不足、語言文化隔閡、中國人大量進入非洲為非洲帶來的威脅感,以及非洲國家效率不佳等問題。
      本文選用莫三比克為討論個案,主要基於中國對莫國衛生援助穩定,以及莫國非能源出口國,因此正可用以檢視中國官方媒體對中國在非洲衛生外交的「神話」般報導以及有些中國學者對於中國衛生外交不為能源而是傳播道義思想的論述是否真確。研究發現僅管莫國現不具能源,中國藉由提供衛生援助在莫國取得其他重要利益,如政治層面,外科醫生江永生使莫國堅定且明確支持兩岸統一;經濟層面,如熟悉中國藥品的莫國向中國製藥公司購買抗瘧疾藥品,軟實力層面,莫國大部分民眾對中國抱持好感,政府官員也甚讚中莫醫療合作。莫國同時也是第一個曾經拒絕中國醫療隊派遣的國家,也正可藉此檢視中國衛生外交面臨的困境。除語言文化隔閡外,中國醫生不願至莫國偏鄉服務加上其他外國醫生在莫國的競爭使莫國有意降低對中國醫療資源的依賴,是莫國不願續約的主因。中國若不能妥善處理上述問題,莫國可能不會是唯一一個拒絕接受中國醫療資源的國家。
    Since its very first medical team to Algeria in 1963, China has been steadily developing its health diplomacy in Africa. This stably growing flow of medical resources from China to Africa has caught attention from both Chinese and foreign scholars. However, owing to the confidentiality of Chinese foreign aid and the fact that health diplomacy is a term that is relatively new in the academia, there is no clear picture about China’s health diplomacy in Africa. Based on the existing literature, this thesis complies facts and figures principally from Chinese official sources in a bid to draw a clear picture of the development, scale, and pattern of China’s health aid to Africa. Via health diplomacy, China gains considerable benefits. In the political front, African countries that have received medical assistance from China support China’s bid to replace Taiwan in the United Nations, shield China from human right censoring, and stand with China in cross-strait issue. In the economic front, with health diplomacy, China introduces home-manufactured medicine to Africa or simply trades its medical service with Africa’s natural resources, tapping into a continent that is stricken with disease. More than political and economic benefits, health diplomacy most importantly burnishes China’s image in Africa, enhancing its soft power. However, China’s health diplomacy doesn’t go without any obstacles. The lack of volunteer doctors, the barriers of language and culture, a sense of threat conjured by the heavy presence of Chinese in Africa, the inefficiency of African countries and so forth, all present themselves as impediments to China’s health diplomacy in Africa.
    This thesis chooses Mozambique as the target for further research because China’s medical aid to Mozambique has been very stable. Also, Mozambique is not a major exporter of natural resource; hence it could be used to examine the often mythologized reports from China’s official media on the Chinese doctors serving in Africa, and the claims by some Chinese scholars about how China’s health assistance is not for natural resources but for solidarity. What my research finds however is that despite the lack of energy currently, Mozambique offers some other benefits to China. For political benefits, the Chinese surgeon, Jiang, Yong-Sheng ensures that Mozambique firmly endorses the unification of Taiwan and China. For economic benefits, Mozambique, who is well acquainted with Chinese medicine, purchases anti-malaria medicine from a Chinese medical company. As for soft power, a majority of Mozambicans have favorable opinion toward China. The Mozambican officials for numerous times praise the medical cooperation between China and Mozambique. However, at the same time, Mozambique was the first country that refused to accept a new team of Chinese doctors to come to Mozambique, and thus it is also a good case to analyze the challenges that are facing China now. Apart from language and cultural barriers, Chinese government’s refusal to deploy their doctors in rural areas in Mozambique, and the medical personnel from other countries, make Mozambique tries to gradually reduce its dependence on China’s medical assistance. Being aware of its overdose reliance on China was the main reason why Mozambique didn’t want to renew the contract. If Beijing fails to solve the aforementioned problems, Mozambique might not be the only African country that says no to China’s doctors.
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    Description: 碩士
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    外交學系
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