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    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/84955
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    Title: 解析青少年犯罪率高峰之現象:「低自我控制」「與成熟代溝」之再議
    Analysis of the Concepts of Low Self-Control and Maturity Gap in the Pick Delinquency Phenomenon of Adolescents at Taiwan
    Authors: 曾幼涵
    Tzeng, Yo-Han
    Contributors: 李美枝
    Lee, Mei-Chi
    曾幼涵
    Tzeng, Yo-Han
    Keywords: 青少年犯罪
    一般犯罪理論
    低自我控制
    成熟代溝
    終生型反社會行為
    青少年暫時型反社會行為
    Juvenile delinquency
    A general theory of crime
    Low self-control
    Maturity gap
    Life-course-persistent antisocial behavior
    Adolescence-limited antisocial behavior
    Date: 2001
    Issue Date: 2016-04-15 16:03:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 國內外的犯罪統計都發現青少年犯罪率高峰之現象。本研究擷取一般犯罪理論(A general theory of crime; Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990)與成熟代溝理論(Maturity gap theory; Moffitt, 1993)的觀點來探討青少年犯罪率高峰現象之成因。一般犯罪理論採犯罪成因一元解釋觀點,認為犯罪人皆來自社會化不良所產生之低自我控制(low self-control)特質,低自我控制者具有貪圖眼前享樂,不顧未來後果的特性;一旦遇到適當的犯罪時機就會產生犯罪行為,而青春期正是犯罪能力與動機較強之時期,故青少年犯罪率特高。Moffitt將青少年犯罪分成青少年暫時型反社會行為(Adolescence-limited antisocial behavior)與終生型反社會行為(Life-course-persistent antisocial behavior)兩種,前者源於成熟代溝(maturity gap),指青少年在青春期生理成熟時產生之成人角色需求,受到法律或親長之限制而引發叛逆犯罪;後者則源於較先天性的神經心理因素。本研究即以「低自我控制」與「成熟問題」兩觀點來探索青少年犯罪率高峰現象的成因。本研究抽取國、高中學生共602人以及矯正機構學生共222人,比較國一到高三共六個年級的偏差行為分數,發現國二到國三是偏差行為的遽增期。階層回歸分析發現「低自我控制」先於社會化而存在,對偏差行為有很強的預測力;但是「成熟問題」的預測力與「低自我控制」相當。將受試者分成小時候即有偏差行為且持續到國中以後的「早發型」,以及直到國中以後才開始有偏差行為的「晚發型」,發現「早發型」無論在「低自我控制」或「成熟問題」,都較「晚發型」來得高分(即自我控制力較低,成熟困擾較高);訪談二位「早發型」及二位「晚發型」的矯正機構學生,發現「早發型」之自我控制力較低,但成熟困擾與「晚發型」相當。由於青春期發展困擾普遍存在於偏差青少年,使小學階段即有偏差行為的「早發型」產生更多違犯行為,使原先沒有偏差行為的「晚發型」開始從事違犯行為,乃因而產生青少年犯罪率高峰之現象。本研究額外的發現是,親長若對於青少年之官能性成熟需求加以限制,可抑制偏差行為之發生。另外,可預期「早發型」有持續犯罪的可能性,因為除了「低自我控制」的不良特質外,該特質會與惡質環境交互作用而產生進一步的累積結果(cumulative consequences)。
    With regard to the pick-delinquency phenomenon of adolescents, there are two major theories. A General Theory of Crime (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990) attribute the phenomenon to the crime committing opportunity caused by the strengthened motivation and action capacity of low self-control individuals who step into adolescence period. The Maturity-Gap Theory (Moffitt, 1993) emphasizes that the discrepancy between the newly developed needs and the limitation toward the fulfillment of these needs from social agents caused the jump of juvenile delinquency. 606 Students of general schools and 222 custodial adolescents of correction schools were asked to answer a questionnaire of which the variables related to the two theories were constructed. Using deviant behaviors as criterion variables and the measured variables as predicting variables, the regression analyses by sets of variables yield the following results:(1) instant fun seeking, impulsiveness, deviant peer association and sensual needs resulted from maturation are highly significant variables to predict deviant behaviors. Whereas, the inhibition of sensual maturation needs from adults are countering variables to prevent adolescents from doing deviant behavior. In sum, maturity is highly related to juvenile delinquency but not the way explained by the maturity-gap theory at least at Taiwan. Comparing the delinquents of " early onset (of crime)" and "late onset" with "never onset" adolescents, the deviant profiles of the former two groups are similar to each other, but with the "early onset" having higher scores on the measured undesirable variables which may result from cumulative effect of circulating interaction between the adolescent's low self-control characteristics and vicious environment. The same conclusion can be derived from the qualitative data from interviewing four delinquents of correction school.
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