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    Title: 物神論和它者學: 布希亞的客體方法論考察
    Other Titles: Fetishism and Heterology: An Investigation of Baudrillard's Methodology of the Object
    Authors: 高國魁
    Contributors: 社會學系
    Keywords: 象徵交換;擬仿;時尚;物神;它者;客體方法
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2016-04-20 14:30:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在資本主義全球化的今日,常民已經習慣把消費和科技創新等現象具體經驗為日常生活 中理所當然的社會事實,而社會學家更傾向將它們抽象認識成個體實作與整體結構的對 立或共構關係。然而,早從 1960 年代末到 1980 年代初,還在法國 Nanterre 大學社會 學系任教的布希亞便前瞻性地將人性及科技的存在本質,連同人文及自然科學的知識體 制,放回到消費和傳播的社會形式中進行觀察,結果是批判地揭露形式內在的符號物體 系和擬像物秩序。照此典型理解,至今對布希亞思想的主流詮釋大多都還侷限在象徵交 換和擬仿分別作為人類學和形上學的二元論社會秩序中,未能拉出語言與科技的存有論 向度。 在此研究背景下,計畫開展兩點研究視角切入布希亞思想: 一是存在現象學,二是 雙螺旋說。第一,布希亞與其說是在結構社會學、馬克思主義、精神分析和後結構主義 等知識框架下批判制度化社會的價值和秩序,不如說他是在對這些社會知識潮流的意識 經驗進行存在現象學的描述,以還原出大眾化(非)社會的無價和無序。第二,布希亞在 1987 年的升等論文<<溝通的狂喜>>裡提出雙螺旋的理論虛構形象時,是為了要回應當代 拜物教去物質化的問題挑戰。更具體說,出身於道德左派的形上學傳統的布希亞,後來 體認到全球資本主義在螢幕(影音)與網絡(電子)媒體等科技化過程中,正逐漸從真實符 碼的激情中冷卻,使得消費市場中的符號商品形式進一步虛擬化為時尚的魅惑和傳染機 制。 在兩點研究視角下,計畫提出兩個研究問題以重建布希亞的客體方法: 一是物神 論,二是它者學。面對時尚的新情境,布希亞揚棄了懷疑、批判理性的啟蒙遺產,並跨 越以主體和真實法則為基礎的社會體系觀,開始發展由物神和它者規則所引導的獨特客 體策略,明證完美又真實的差異符碼體系內部常有突變,故總能浮現出不確定、去差異 的客觀諷刺物。在研究步驟中,計畫規劃布希亞的物神論可以透過正面比較早期阿岡本 的詩學藝文觀,又反面對照早期齊澤克的意識形態說加以釐清。至於布希亞的它者學則 要輔以異文化遊記和破壞聖像神學等補充觀點。最終,計畫期望能引致布希亞思想的當 代關聯性,開啟大眾文化和政治現象的另類分析視野
    In today’s global capitalism, folks are accustomed to experience innovative phenomena in consumption and technology as a social fact, while sociologists are more inclined to acquire abstract knowledge of them as a result of opposed or interdependent relation between individual practice and total structure. However, from the late 1960s to the early 1980s, Baudrillard had already situated the existential essence of humanity and technology, along with the epistemological institution of human and natural sciences, within the social form of consumption and communication, resulting in a critical exposure of its underlying system of sign-objects and order of simulacra. Given as such, most mainstream Baudrillardian studies are still entrapped within an understanding of dual social orders based on anthropological symbolic exchange and metaphysical simulation, failing to open up the ontological dimension of language and technology. Against this research background, the project proposes two analytical angles to approach Baudrillard’s thought: one is existential phenomenology and the other is the figure of double spiral. First, it suggests that Baudrillard’s work does not criticize institutional social value and order from the perspective of structural sociology, Marxism, psychoanalysi an poststructuralist; rather, he conducts a phenomenological re-description of these currents of social knowledge in order to reduce to an image of mass (non)society without value and order. Second, when Baudrillard introduced the figure of double spiral in Ecstasy of Communication, he was trying to respond to the dematerialization of fetishism in the present human condition. Although rooted in the metaphysical tradition of the moralist Left, Baudrillard came to recognize that, screen (audio-visual media) and network (digital media) operating in global capitalism have cooled down the passion for the code, precipitating the sign-commodity form in the consumer market to further become the virtual fascination and contagion of fashion. The project proposes two research questions with an aim to reconstruct Baudrillard’s methodology of object: one is the fetishism and the other is heteroloy (or radical exoticism). Confronted with the novel situation, Baudrillard has abandoned the critical reason of doubt in the Enlightenment legacy, crossed the conception of social system based on the Real and the subject, and started to develop a strategy of the singular object guided by the fetish and the radical Other. He demonstrated that the perfect and real system of the differential code often undergoes mutation, and creates an uncertain and indifferent object of objective irony. Finally, the project designs several research steps: 1) Baudrillard’s theory of fetishism may be elucidated by a comparative study of Agamben’s notion of poetic art and Zizek’s idea of ideology. 2) Baudrillard’s theory of radical exoticism may be supplemented by views derived from the writing traditions of cross-cultural travelogue and iconoclastic theology. Finally, the project wishes to induce the contemporary relevance of Baudrillard’s thought, intimating an alternative empirical analysis of mass culture and politics.
    Relation: 計畫編號 NSC 102-2410-H004-117
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[社會學系] 國科會研究計畫

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