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    Title: 托克維爾自由思想研究
    Authors: 李欣耀
    Contributors: 何信全
    李欣耀
    Keywords: 自由
    民主專制
    多數暴政
    正確理解的自利原則
    Date: 1998
    Issue Date: 2016-04-22 16:36:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 托克維爾(1805-1859)可說是近現代論述民主政治可能具有的優劣或利害後果之重要甚至是首位先驅。他深刻的認知到貴族社會結構已然改變,而隨之而來的民主社會乃是「勢所必至,天意使然」,任何人皆無法也不應當抵抗此種潮流,不過他也未對此趨勢感到自在如意,他明瞭民主的到來只是移去一些過往舊制度的弊病,但此新生社會亦會有其內在結構上之問題,若不加以解決或防治,同樣會對個人乃至人類文明之進步繁榮產生阻礙。所謂的重大弊病,對托克維爾來說,乃是民主社會及政治結構對人類自由以及德性實踐可能造成的傷害或阻礙,進而危及人類之幸福繁榮。托克維爾認為自由乃是眾善之首,一切人類追求的積極價值都需以自由的存在為前提,然而不幸的是,民主的社會卻很可能因為其結構上之趨向,使人們自願離自由而遠去,遺棄了獨立自由精神,蔑視個人權利之神聖性;並讓人們於財富的追逐中忘卻了群體以及個體的公共責任,在尚得的倫理下,淪入個人主義乃至利己主義之境地,以致在人際相互冷淡疏離之過程中,瓦解了對公共道德及人類尊嚴的信念,最後淪入到一種雖高度平等卻缺乏公共德性及自由保障之民主專制政體中。而破解防治之道,首先托克維爾認為須以漸進方式授予人們政治權利,讓人們在「正確理解的自利原則」的運用下,願意去關懷公共福祉,並在政治參與的潛移默化過程中,培養出社群成員間的凝聚感以及本能的愛國情操;其次應當設法澄化民情,在這方面托克維爾認為宗教、家庭與婦女、政治人物以及偶發之戰爭等因素扮演重要角色;再者在法政制度的設計上應因時地變化而做調整,但總應同時注重國家安全、個人自由以及公共精神的發揚三項原則;最後他寄望市民社會能夠蓬勃發展,人民能養成自發性的結社習慣,不事事依賴政府,讓強有力的市民社會作為抗衡公權力肆意妄為的後盾,不過市民社會能否勃發又與政治參與習慣之能否養成息息相關,故而我們可說政治參與精神能否培養得出,乃是托克維爾自由技藝成功與否的關鍵因素。文末筆者則對托克維爾自由思想的屬性及現代意義做一初步探討,認為托克維爾所提出的一些觀念對於我們仍有相當之啟發性,尤其與當代自由主義相較,托克維爾那種較相信特殊主義、群體主義、以及政治與道德的關連的思想,確實是值得我們再細細思量並加以踐履。

    目錄
    第一章 導論 ……………………………………………….…...1
    第一節 本研究之基本說明………………………………………1
    第二節 托克維爾的著述及思想背景……………………………4
    第二章 自由的落腳:天意使然的民主………………………………..9
    第一節 自由的追尋……………………………………………..10
    第二節 從貴族到民主…………………………………………. 20
    第三節 民主與自由的辯證……………………………………..32
    第三章 民主專制與多數暴政………………………………………...41
    第一節 人民主權與多數暴政…………………………………..41
    第二節 中央集權與民主專制…………………………………. 49
    第三節 國家職能與公民反抗…………………………………. 60
    第四章 自由社會與德性公民…………………………………………69
    第一節 個人發展與社群繁榮…………………………………..69
    第二節 法政制度與民情風俗…………………………………..79
    第三節 市民社會及政治參與…………………………………..95
    第五章 托克維爾自由思想的當代意義………………………….….105
    第一節 托克維爾自由思想之評估及定位……………………105
    第二節 自由主義的另一種選擇………………………………114
    第六章 結論…………………………………………………………..125
    參考書目………………………………………………………………129
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    政治學系
    85252004
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#B2002001451
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 學位論文

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