穆斯林人口的少數民族化，是當代中國大陸民族識別與多元化族群現象中的特色之一。文化特徵與漢族相當密切的回族，其少數民族身份的確立，可說是中國伊斯蘭史上，穆斯林族群身份與國家主權關係結合模式中，影響層面最為深遠的例子。經由民族識別的過程，法定少數民族身份的賦予，使得傳統中國社會中與漢文化關係密切的回回、回民，自二十世紀中期以後，取得與漢族同樣具有「民族」身份屬性的事實。在族群文化面向上，回族與漢族之間這種兼具同質性（homogeneity）與異質性（heterogeneity）的現象，近年來學界也開始以當代西方人類學理論，探討回族的族性內涵與族屬爭議。本文同時亦探討有關「邊緣性回族」的案例，及其所代表回族少數民族身份識別過程中的不明確性。最後，並對今後中國大陸回族「少數民族化」研究的趨勢，提出以實證性民族志資料做為重點的研究取向。 To consider the main Muslim populations as ten legal ethnic minorities that is one of the peculiar aspects in the process of ethnic identification and the phenomena of ethnic pluralism in contemporary Mainland China. Especially the Hui Nationality which has a very close relationship in cultural characteristics with the majority Han Chinese, its modern status of legal ethnic minority that has to be considered as the most prominently influential case in the model of combination in which between the position of ethnic Muslim and the domination of sovereign as that in the Islamic history of China. Nevertheless, by means of the process of ethnic identification, the status of legal ethnic minority that to make the Sinicizing Muslim Chinese (Hui-Hui or Hui-Min) which in the traditional Chinese society that had been achieved a new ethnic attribute of “nationality”\" just like the majority Han Chinese that since the midst of last century. In recent years, base on the fact that including of the ethnic -cultural homogeneity and heterogeneity between the Hui Nationality and the majority Han Chinese, some scholars also begin to use relative modern anthropological theories to approach the controversial peculiarities of the ethnic attribute in Hui Nationality. By the way, this article is looking forward to providing lots of studying cases of “marginal Hui Nationality” and to try to proof that there are still some ambiguous aspects in the final result of the ethnic identification of Hui Nationality sine 1950s. Finally, according to the recent studying achievement and tendency of Hui Nationality in Mainland China, this article also makes an attempt to effort the opinion that wild-range collection and effective analysis of sufficient and practical ethnographical resources in this field is still a necessary research approach to the studying of Hui Nationality.