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    Title: 政權合法性與憲改模式:比較台灣與歐洲後共新興民主國家
    Other Titles: Regime Legitimacy and Mode of Constitutional Reform: Comparing Taiwan and Post-Communist Nascent Democracies in Europe
    Authors: 吳玉山
    Wu, Yu-Shan
    Keywords: 制憲修憲;後共;中東歐;台灣
    rewriting and amending the constitution;post-communist;Central and Eastern Europe;Taiwan
    Date: 2006-02
    Issue Date: 2016-05-09 14:00:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在民主轉型的過程當中,改變國家的憲政體制幾乎是無可避免的。此種改變可能和民主化一起發生,或是延遲一段時間後產生。憲改的速度可快可慢,或是一步到位,或是採取逐步漸進的方式。說憲改的機構而言,可能是從既有的權力機關發動(內生渠道),也可能是另起爐灶,直接透過國民主權理論、以超越現有體制的公民投票方式來決定(外在渠道)。就程度而言,可以有大有小,大到制定新憲法,小到對現有憲政體制做一定程度的修正。憲政改造經由不同的起點、速度、渠道與程度構成了四種不同的憲改模式:激進制憲、延遲激進制憲、漸進內生制憲與漸進修憲。在檢視了十一個歐洲後共新興民主國家之後,我們發現社會對前威權體制的支持和憲改的激進性是成反比的。過去改革性較強、政權合法性較高的威權主義國家在民主化之後易於採取延遲性的、漸進式的和內發式的憲改模式,而過去改革性較弱、政權合法性較低的威權主義國家在民主化之後則易於採取第一時間的、一步到位的和外生式的制憲模式。此一規律也適用於臺灣。由於舊體制的合法性較高,因此臺灣迄今都是採取最為溫和的漸進憲改模式。然而由於臺灣出現了後發的國家認同衝突,帶來了憲改模式的價值化與激進化,因此憲改工程在政權輪替之後重新啟動,並且引發了國際的遏抑。於是一方面憲改長期化,一方面憲改又國際化。這兩項特徵是歐洲後共新興民主國家所未見的。本文冀圖發展憲改模式之比較性研究,一方面為國內之政治發展提供分析工具,一方面豐富新興民主國家之研究議題。
    It is inevitable that the constitutional system of a nation will change during democratic transition. Such change may occur either simultaneously with democratic transition, or with a time lag. The pace of constitutional reform varies: either at a stroke or with gradual steps. The institution of constitutional reform also varies: it may be an existing state organization (endogenous channel), or referenda based on the tenet of popular sovereignty (exogenous channel). The extent to which the existing constitution is changed may differ: the document may be amended or rewritten. One may find four modes of constitutional reform based on the starting point, the pace, the channel, and the extent of change: radical rewriting, delayed radical rewriting, gradual endogenous rewriting, and gradual amendment. After reviewing eleven post-communist nascent democracies in Europe, we find support for the old regime is inversed related to the radicalism of the constitutional reform. Those authoritarian regimes that enjoy greater social support and higher legitimacy tend to face moderate modes of constitutional reform, while those authoritarian regimes with less social support and lower legitimacy tend to experience more radical modes of constitutional reform. This rule applies to Taiwan in that the considerable social support and legitimacy the old regime enjoys helps to assure a moderate form of constitutional reform: gradual amendment. However, owing to belated eruptions of identity conflict one witnesses radicalization of the mode of constitutional reform. After the transfer of power constitutional restructuring has been relaunched, causing international backlash. Constitutional reform has become chronic and internationalized. These are unique phenomena that the post-communist nascent democracies in Europe have not seen. This article sets as its goal the development of comparative constitutional reform, providing analytical instrument for domestic political development, and enriching the research agenda of the study of nascent democracies.
    Relation: 問題與研究, 45(1), 1-28
    Issues & studies
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[問題與研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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