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    Title: 憲政設計、政黨政治與權力分立:美國分立政府的運作經驗及其啟示
    Other Titles: Constitutional Designs, Party Politics, and Separation of Powers: The Lessons of Divided Government in the United States
    Authors: 吳重禮
    Wu, Chung-Li
    Keywords: 分立政府;憲政體制;政黨政治;分裂投票;政府表現
    divided government;constitutional system;party politics;split-ticket voting;government performance
    Date: 2006-06
    Issue Date: 2016-05-09 14:02:38 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 現今,我國正面臨憲政工程改造之際;展望未來,憲政改革的主要核心議題似乎仍然在於政黨政治與權力分立的基本架構。其間,如何避免「分立政府」(divided government)的形成及其可能的負面影響,更是攸關政治運作甚鉅。鑑於分立政府研究領域具有重要理論意涵與實際參考價值,本文檢視美國政府的運作經驗,探討形成分立政府的肇因、分立政府的運作影響,以及如何改革分立政府所造成的可能弊端。儘管學者曾提出各種論述詮釋分立政府的起因及其影響,但是迄今仍未有周全的學說,足以為多數學者所認同。再者,本文旨在引介美國「憲政體制委員會」(Committee on the Constitutional System, CCS)針對分立政府所提出的若干革新方案,試圖做為我國未來憲政改革的借鏡。本文提出的改革芻議著重於兩方面:其一,強化政黨在選舉過程的功能,減少選民「分裂投票」(split-ticket voting)的可能,避免分立政府的形成;其二,改善行政與立法的互動機制,提升政府表現與領導效能。本文在結論中強調,由於台灣長期存在著族群意識分歧、國家認同矛盾,以及南北地域差異,這些改革方案均牽涉制度選擇,將是未來極為關鍵的政治議程。
    Taiwan is now facing a critical moment of constitutional reforms, and the major concern still lies in the governmental structure with party politics and separation of powers. To that extent, it is especially important to refrain from the causes of divided government and inefficient consequences. Viewed in this light, this work examines the causes of divided government, the consequences of divided and unified governments, and reforms. With respect to causes, researchers developed various approaches to study split-ticket voting behavior, but none provide a comprehensive explanation. Just as not knowing the cause of divided government, the question regarding the consequences of divided government, ”do policy gridlock, political stalemate, and government ineffectiveness arise under divided government?” remains contentious. More importantly, this study aims at introducing reform proposals of divided government recommended by the Committee on the Constitutional System (CCS), which can be regarded as the example of constitutional designs for Taiwan. Accordingly this study, seven reform proposals all presented in response to two general goals. The first is to strengthen political parties as agents for cohesion and accountability and to reduce the possibility of split-ticket voting, hence avoiding divided government. The second is to improve collaboration between executive and legislative branches and thus, to improve government performance and leadership efficiency. This work concludes with given in the context of social cleavages in ethnic consciousness, national identity, and regional differences, Taiwan constitutional reforms should be the salient political issues for the future.
    Relation: 問題與研究, 45(3), 133-166
    Issues & studies
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[問題與研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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