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    Title: 俄羅斯、中國和日本在遠東的經濟互動
    Authors: 田澤隆史
    Contributors: 王定士
    田澤隆史
    Date: 2002
    Issue Date: 2016-05-09 16:55:37 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   此論文研究俄羅斯、中國大陸和日本在遠東的經濟互動。狹義而言,遠東是指俄屬遠東,也就是說,西伯利亞的東部與日本海岸的西部之間的土地;廣義而言,它是指東北亞,因此,把東北亞的六個國家(俄羅斯、中國大陸、日本、南韓、北韓和蒙古) 當做研究對象。在這六個國家裡面,俄羅斯、中國大陸和北韓都是正在從計劃經濟改變到市場經濟的轉型國家。我要在此論文把經濟特區作為使轉型國家快速而順利地變成市場經濟的一個與其說有效不如說不可或缺的工具。具體而言,我要拿中國大陸的「經濟特區」和俄羅斯的「自由經濟區」,特別是「納霍德卡自由經濟區」為例。以比較優勢為基礎的處理方式使得中國大陸的經濟特區非常靠近在一個雖然過於嚴密的但是整體性的勞動密集出口產業和有希望的高科技計劃之下更單純而更狹窄的出口加工區模型,成功於外資的引進和出口的振興;而功能上太多機能,以及它所造成的法制上缺陷和混亂,使得納霍德卡自由經濟區難以得到所預期的成果,尤其是外資的引進即最緊急待解決的問題。
      「圖們江流域開發計劃」本來是「聯合國開發計劃暑」所主導的一個在有關的六個國家(俄羅斯、中國大陸、日本、南韓、北韓和蒙古)之間很強的經濟互補性的基礎上建立的壯大計劃,但是該計劃因把經濟發展聯繫在國家利益的三個河岸國家(俄羅斯、中國大陸和北韓)之間的國家主權的衝突而進行得不順利。結果,其原來的計劃被迫從它們共同的自由貿易區的創立改變到各自國家出口加工區的發展,但到目前為止沒有任何的進展。值得提起來的是中國大陸與俄屬遠東之間的對立,前者要推進含蓋它吉林省的圖們江流域開發計劃;後者怕中國人人口的壓力和它越過共同界綫而滲透俄屬遠東內部。
      為了 研究俄羅斯、中國大陸和日本之間的經濟互動,也提到六個東北亞國家之間的經濟合作,此論文採用一個理論:「赫克紹—歐林定理」,主張一個國家應該生產出口集中使用該國家比它的貿易夥伴較富於稟賦的生產要素之產品的同時也應該進口集中使用較貧於稟賦的生產要素之產品;另一個理論:「剩餘發洩理論」,主張一個國家,尤其是發展中國家應該把國內的過剩資源挪用到出口以在國外市場創造有效需求,當做理論模式。赫克紹—歐林模式因互相之間的要素稟賦非常明顯地不同故能夠互通有無而很適合於這六個東北亞國家之間的關係。特別是,中國大陸那較富有勞動力所生產的生活必需品和食品在因蘇聯崩潰後的國民經濟破壞和傳統上不能自給自足的畸形經濟結構而缺乏那些東西的俄屬遠東有很大的市場,而俄屬遠東的那豐富的天然資源吸引因它厖大人口需求而擔憂將來資源不足的中國大陸。另一方面,由於造成它僱用情況惡化而憂悶的中國大陸所擁有的那過剩勞動力在人口外流很嚴重的俄屬遠東的勞動市場有很大的有效需求。除了這種靜態的比較優勢以外,還有動態的比較優勢被重視經濟活動之間的距離所產生的運費和聚結效果的新經濟地理學的概念,以及作為政府的措施創造比較優勢的產業政策在人為上所創造出來。而其中的一個就是透過稅金的免交、縮短的折舊、融資於土地使用和勞動成本的國家補貼,以及在賣外資所生產的產品到國內上所增加的配額而鼓勵的經濟特區。
      至於俄羅斯與日本之間的經濟互動,前者在天然資源的方面有比較優勢,而後者在資本、技術和管理系統方面有比較優勢,使得它們有明顯的經濟互補關係。雖然如此,在它們之間的戰爭狀態結束後的這五十年間連和約都沒有簽訂。因此,有必要研究一個妨礙建立它們正常關係的主要原因即北方領土問題。一方面分析此問題的由來和兩國之間有關的交涉過程,此論文提到日本外交部兩個處理方式:「政經不可分」,祇要領土問題方面的交涉沒有進展就不允許經濟關係的發展;「擴大均衡」,在志向最終兩者:經 濟合作和領土問題的交涉之間有均衡的發展之下祇要北方領土問題最終會被解決就之前不一定要等到領土問題上的交涉有進展纔要發展它們經濟關係。此論文也探討它們之間在薩哈林自由經濟區較有希望的經濟合作計劃。
      This paper studies about the economic interactions between Russia, the Mainland China, and Japan in the Far East. Narrowly, the Far East means the Russian Far East(RFE), namely the territories between east of Siberia and west of the coast along the Sea of Japan ; broadly it means the Northeast Asia, so the six Northeast Asian countries(Russia, the Mainland China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, and Mongolia)are cast within the range of studies. Of these six countries, Russia, the Mainland China, and North Korea are transitional countries that is converting the planning economy into the market economy. In this paper I take the special economic zone as effective, rather indispensable means to make the transitional countries move to the market economy rapidly and smoothly. Concretely, I pick up the Mainland China''s 「Special Economic Zone」(SEZ) and Russia''s 「Free Economic Zone」(FEZ), especially 「Nakhodka Free Economic Zone」(NFEZ). The excessive burden in function and the legislative defects and confusions has made it difficult for NFEZ to obtain the expected results, especially the introduction of foreign capital, that is, the most urgent problem awaiting solution for the present Russian economy, while the basis of a comparative advantage approach brought China''s SEZ quite close to a simpler and narrower 「Export Processing Zone」(EPZ)model with comprehensive, though strictly selective, promotion of labour-intensive export industries and promising high-tech projects, succeeding in the introduction of foreign investment and the promotion of export.
      「The Tumen River Area Development Project」(TRADP) is originally to be thought a magnificent program that 「the United Nations Development Program」(UNDP)takes the leader in on the ground of strong economic supplements between those six Northeast Asian countries, but this project has gone wrong because of a collision of the state sovereignty of these three riparian states(Russia, the Mainland China, and North Korea)that consider the economic development in relation to their state interests. Consequently, the origin plan was obliged to shift from the creation of their common free trade zone to the development of each country''s export processing zone. So far we still find no any notable progress in it. What deserves to be picked up is a conflict between the Mainland China and RFE, the former wants to promote TRADP covering its Jilin Province, the latter warns Chinese population''s pressure and its permeate toward the inside of RFE beyond their common frontier.
      To study the economic interactions between Russia, the Mainland China, and Japan, which also refers to the economic cooperation between those six Northeast Asian countries, this paper employs the one theory: 「Heckscher-Ohlin theorem」advocating that a country should export the product that is relatively intensive in using the factor with which the country is relatively well-endowed and that at the same time the country should import the product that is relatively intensive in using the factor with which the country is relatively ill-endowed than its trade partners; and the other theory: 「vent-for-surplus theory」advocating that a country, especially a developing country should appropriate domestic surplus resources to the export thereby creating an effective demand for it in the foreign market, as the theoretical framework. Heckscher-Ohlin theorem applies well in the relations between those six Northeast Asian countries because of the factor endowments is so clearly different that they are able to supply each other's wants. Especially, the abundant natural resources in RFE attract the Mainland China that is worried about future''s short of them by its huge population''s demand, while Chinese daily necessaries and food products that those Chinese relatively rich workforce produces have big markets in RFE that run short of them for the sake of the destruction of the national economy since the collapse of USSR and of its traditional distorted economic system impossible of self-sufficiency.In the other hand, surplus workforce in the Mainland China, which depress her making the situation of employment worse, has big effective demands in the labour market of RFE where an efflux of people is very serious. While such comparative advantages are static, there are dynamic comparative advantages artificially created by the concepts of new economic geography that makes much of the transportation cost arising from the distances between economic activities, the spatial agglomeration, and the industrial policy that creates comparative advantages as government''s measures, one of which is the special economic zone through tax exemption, accelerated depreciation, state subsidies for financing land use and labour costs and increased quotas for selling the products the foreign investors produce domestically.
      As to the economic interactions between Russia and Japan, the farmer has a comparative advantage in its natural resources, the latter has in its capital, technology, and management system, so there are clear economic supplementary relations. Nevertheless, even peace treaty has not been signed these fifty years since a conclusion of their warfare. So, it is necessary to study the main cause that hinders the creation of their normal economic relations, that is, the problem of Northern Territories. This paper picks up the two approaches of Japan''s Foreign Ministry, the one is called「the indivisibility of economy from politics」that does not allow the promotion of their economic relations so long as the negotiations over the territorial problems are not in progress; the other is called 「the expanded equilibrium」that promotes their economic relations not necessarily after the progress of the negotiations over the territorial problems finally aiming at the balance development of these two: economic relations and negotiations over the territorial plobrems,if the problem of the Northern Territories will only be resolved at the end, while analyzing the origin of this problem and the process these negotiations about it between Russia and Japan. This paper also examines the relatively hopeful economic cooperative projects in 「Sakhalin Free Economic Zone」(SFFZ) between them.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    85163012
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#A2010000217
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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