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    Title: 兒童氣質.父母教養方式與兒童社會能力關係之研究
    Authors: 王珮玲
    Contributors: 吳靜吉
    林邦傑

    王珮玲
    Keywords: 兒童氣質
    兒童社會能力
    父母教養方式
    教育
    Date: 1992
    Issue Date: 2016-05-11
    Abstract: 本研究之主要目的係在探討兒童氣質、父母教養方式與兒童社會能力之關係。
    本研究之自變項係指兒童氣質(活動量、適應度、趨避度、情緒強度、注意力分散度、堅持度)與父親及母親教養方式(保護、愛護、命令、拒絕、忽視、精神獎勵、物質獎勵、精神懲罰、物質懲罰);依變項則為兒童社會能力,包括教師所評量之社會能力與兒童同儕所評量之社會能力,教師所評量之社會能力是:工作能力、主動性、了解人己關係、禮貌、陌生及公共場合之反應、語言能力,而兒童同儕所評量之社會能力則分為五組:受歡迎組、被排斥組、被忽視組、受爭論組及一般組。
    本研究所使用的研究工具計有社經地位調查表、兒童氣質量表、父親教養方式問卷、母親教養方式問卷、加州學前兒童社會能力量表與照片式社會計量工具。研究樣本計1267人,係取自台北市公私立幼稚園十二個行政區之46所幼稚園。研究所得的資料,係以皮爾森積差相關、單因子單變量變異數分析、單因子多變量變異數分析、典型相關分析、多元區別分析以及逐步多元迴歸分析等方法進行處理。
    茲將本研究之主要研究發現歸納如下:
    一、兒童氣質、父母教養方式與兒童社會能力之一般狀況:
    男生在活動量,情緒強度及注意力分散度較女生高;女生在適應度及堅持度較男生高,其社會能力也較男生好。而在注意力分散度,中社經較高,堅持度,高社經較高;在教養方式,高社經較中低社經較中低社經採積極教養方式;此外,高社經在語言能力較好。
    二、兒童氣質與父母教養方式之相關:
    活動量大,適應性差,情緒強度激型,注意力分散度大,堅持度低的兒童,相對的,父親或母親稍會採命令、忽視和懲罰等消極的教養方式。
    三、兒童氣質與兒童社會能力之關係:
    1 兒童氣質之適應性好,注意力分散度低,堅持度高的孩子,則其社會能力愈好。此外,活動量愈大、情緒強度愈高的孩子,則其工作能力愈不好;但趨避度愈高的孩子,除主動性外,其他社會能力也愈好。
    2 不同程度的兒童氣質在教師評量之兒童社會能力上皆有顯著差異存在。
    3.受爭論的兒童比受歡迎的兒童注意力分散度高、活動量大、堅持度低、適應度差、趨避度低。但也比被忽視的兒童趨避度高、活動量大、適應度好、堅持度低。
    四、父母教養方式與兒童社會能力之關係:
    1 父親愈採拒絕、命令、忽視、物質懲罰的教養方式時,相對的,兒童的社會能力也愈不好。而母親愈採忽視和物質懲罰教養方式,則兒童的禮貌愈不好。
    2 不同程度的父母教養方式在教師所評量之兒童社會能力上無顯著差異存在。
    3.被排斥的兒童比被忽視的兒童,母親比較會採愛護、命令、拒絕、忽視、物質獎勵的教養方式。但比受爭論兒童,母親比較會採愛護、命令、拒絕、忽視、物質獎勵的教養方式。
    五、兒童氣質、父母教養方式與兒童社會能力的關係:
    1 兒童氣質與父母教養方式對教師所評量兒童社會能力的的預測力,以兒童氣質變項的聯合預測力最大,其中尤以堅持度、活動量和趨避度三者,解釋力最大。
    2 兒童氣質與父母教養方式對兒童同儕所評量社會能力區別作用,以兒童氣質對兒童同儕所評量社會能力較具顯著區別作用。
    研究者根據研究發現,提出以下建議:
    一、研究結果在教育輔導的應用
    1、明瞭兒童氣質的重要性:氣質對親子關係的建立;氣質對師生關係的影響;氣質在同儕所扮演的角色;氣質對兒童社會能力發展的重要性。
    2、瞭解兒童氣質的方法,國內有臺大醫院兒童心理衛兒中心,榮總醫院兒童青少年精神科,臺北婦幼醫院兒童心智科,臺北馬偕醫院家庭醫學科,皆有門診安排施測。此外,也可使用適齡的兒童氣質量表。
    3、根據孩子活動量、趨避度、適應度、情緒強度、注意力分散度、堅持度的氣質特性,因材施教。
    此外,建議在親職教育中,加強氣質觀念並再肯定父親角色地位。
    二、對未來研究的建議
    進一步探討兒童氣質與父母教養方式之間的相關性;進一步擴大研究樣本的年齡層次;進一步將孩子的氣質歸類,以個案的方式探討;進一步探討兒童氣質與父母教養方式之間,產生最佳社會能力的配合度;採取其他方法續做探討。
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