本文省察德國刑事程序法理論中最重要的訴訟目的——實體真實發現主義，先闡述其理論基礎「對應理論」；相對一般之見解，筆者從知識社會學、尼采與傅柯之見解演繹出「對抗關係」，以此重新詮釋實體真實發現主義，並透過三個不同歷史斷代的概念考掘，指出實體真實發現主義的茁生，是一種「對應理論」取代「對抗關係」的歷史進程，但對抗關係仍深埋在今日刑事訴訟的深層結構中。現代訴訟貫徹實體真實發現主義的他種解讀，即是其一方面強化了刑罰的國權公共機能，他方面透過無痛的手段壓抑了個人對國權的反抗可能性。 This article discusses the principle “material fact-finding”, the most important criminal method of proceeding among Germany’s criminal procedure theories. The principle “material fact-finding” is traditionally based on correspondence theory, but the author tries to develop an adversary model derived from the “sociology of knowl¬edge”, the views of Friedrich Nietzsche and Michel Foucault, then proceed to analyze three historical periods of Germany’s criminal procedure. The author argues that the birth of “material fact-finding” in Germany’s criminal procedure is a developmental history in that the adversary model was gradually replaced by the correspondence conception. However, the adversary model never actually disappeared. It was rather concealed in the deeper power structure of Germany’s contemporary criminal procedure and brought about the consequences of strengthening state power as well as reducing the possibilities of individual resistance.