一、研究緣起與經過 蘇聯共產黨已經崩潰，自延安起家時即以蘇共理論為文教活動馬首是瞻的中共，在文教政策 及內涵上是否受到衝擊與影響﹖如有影響，其程度又如何﹖或作怎樣的調適﹖對於以上問題 的疑惑乃引發本研究之主要動機。其次，近年來海峽兩岸交往頻繁，然兩岸一水相隔卻不相 往來已達四十餘年，在二者政經體制發展完全不同的情況下，要兩岸的中國人真正達到相互 認識和了解，可能不太容易，等到統一之日來臨時，必定會有措手不及之慮。是故，徹底了 解中國大陸現況，乃是當務之急的大事。而應著手研究之領域應該包括政治、經濟、社會和 文教諸方面。文教在諸領域內可以說是非常重要的一環。特別是蘇聯解體後，中共文教的走 向，我們更需了解與掌握，此不但對我政府制定海峽兩岸文教交流政策有參考價值，同時， 對日後統一大業亦必有莫大的幫助，此乃本研究之第二個動機。 二、主要發現 中國大陸對於蘇聯解體的主要因應策略包括下列數端： The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the 1991 Soviet Union disorganization has influenced the educational and cultural development of mainland China. Literature review and interviews with related scholars from universities of both sides of the Taiwan Strait were the main methods used. It was found that mainland China's coping strategies with this event are as follows. A. Strategies in general 1. Build up a Chinese-characterized Communist society. 2. Highly emphasize economic development. 3. Strengthen military power control. 4. Attach importance to racial problems. 5. Keep loyal to Communism. 6. To be against the international trend of peaceful revolution. 7. Repeat the theory of evolution of Communism. 8. Claim that the U.S.S.R.'s disorganization means nothing and that mainland China will not do the same. 9. View mainland China as the leader of Communist countries afterwards. 10. Maintain its international relationships based on the principle of self-interest. 11. Boast that only under Communist Party leadership can China avoid being split. 12. Warn the American government not to set up radio stations on mainland China. B. Strategies specific to education and cultural policy 1. Emphisize political thought education. 2. Strengthen Communist leadership in school administration. 3. Cultural policy is led by political policy. 4. Report the Soviet Union as a poor and backward country. 5. All art works must be anti-liberalization and anti-peaceful revolution. 6. Keep strict control on news reports. 7. Highly develop vocational education. 8. Higher education development is toward practical education. 9. Adjust the job placement policy of university graduates. 10. Change overseas study policy, more and more students go to the U.S.A. and Japan instead of the U.S.S.R. 11. Schools' commercial activities keep booming. 12. Make more educational opportunities for minority groups. 13. Try to brainwash the intellectual again.
教育與心理研究, 17,331-360 Journal of Education & Psychology