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    Title: 歐洲聯盟最低工資法制之研究:兼論德國之法制
    Authors: 楊通軒
    Keywords: 最低工資;國家最低工資法;團體協約自治;國家中立原則;最低勞動條件法
    Date: 2007-07
    Issue Date: 2016-06-07 15:41:34 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 就歐美先進國家而言,大抵上均有法定的最低工資規定。以英國為例,雖然曾基於產業自治原則,由勞資雙方自行以團體協約規定其最低工資,惟並未發生作用。一九九八年的「國家最低工資法」遂放棄與團體協約的連結,單純以國家法律創設一最低的標準。該法融合了經濟效益與社會正義,企業落實工作的尊嚴(dignity of work)、拉近男女勞工間的薪資差距。值得注意的是,「國家最低工資法」人的適用範圍非常廣泛,包括臨時工及派遣勞工、家內勞動者均在其適用之列。而且該法係一般地適用於英國境內所有行業別、職業、勞工,屬於「單一最低工資制度」。 再就德國而言,由於傳統上採取團體協約自治及國家中立原則,因此至今大體上仍奉行由工會與雇主協商工資及其他勞動條件之政策。一九五二年的最低勞動條件法在實務上並無任何重要性,而其他的法律,如家內勞動法、職業訓練法、團體協約法上之團體協約一般性拘束力宣告,甚至一九九六年之越境勞工派赴條例,其適用對象均相當有限,與英國「國家最低工資法」可適用於所有行業、勞工並無法比擬。換言之,對於最低工資之確定,團體協約具有優先性,而最低工資法令(尤其是越境勞工派赴條例)只具有補充性。即如團體協約(在一些行業)所約定之工資過低,甚至已無法達到確保勞工生存所必要之額度時,即應以加以救濟,而以最低工資加以救濟,即屬於其方式之一。
    Generally speaking, minimum wage is largely decretory in the advanced Western countries. For example, in the United Kingdom, on the basis of industrial autonomy, labor and capital parties once agreed voluntarily to stipulate a minimum wage in the collective agreement; however, it was ineffective. In 1998, the National Minimum Wage Act simply instituted a minimum wage by the national law, abandoning its connection with collective agreement. The Act integrated economic benefit and social justice, enabling enterprises to fulfilling the dignity of work and narrowing wage differences between male and female workers. It was particularly noteworthy that the National Minimum Wage Act was applicable to a wide range of workers, including part-time, short term, dispatched and household workers. Moreover, the Act constituted a unitary minimum wage system generally applicable to all industries, occupations, workers in the United Kingdom.
    Relation: 政大勞動學報,22,35-65
    Bulletin of Labour Research
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[ 政大勞動學報] 期刊論文

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