隨著文化多樣性的重要性在全球日益受到重視，文化資產的治理與相關產業的發展也引起諸多討論。然而，從治理標的的物理特性以及治理涉及的利益結構來檢視有效治理的文獻卻不多見。本研究指出，文化資產某種程度具有共享資源的特性，在政治上面臨「利益分散於多數、成本集中於少數」的不利結構，需要擴大公民參與，因此發展社會組織、整合在地社會網絡，透過賦權以提升在地自主管理的能力，成為治理成功的重要基礎。本文以大陸培田村古村落的保護與發展為個案，透過既有文獻與田野調查，檢視培田透過保存物質遺產與復振非物質文化過程中所面臨的主要挑戰，展示培田在大陸其他類似的治理案例中所展現的創新與限制。本研究發現許多民間力量在諸如中國人民大學鄉村建設中心等機構的支持與培育之下，吸引許多年輕人投入基層培力的工作，創造合產的機制，也提供更多公道的發展（just development）機會。 The value and importance of cultural historic heritage has been increasingly recognized and emphasized for the reason that its conservation contributes to human diversity, something which is crucial for human creativity and inspiration. From the perspective of the psychological needs of human beings, cultural heritage is a very important resource for shaping both national and local identity, and its conservation is significant in improving social wellbeing. Accordingly, cultural historic heritage has become the focus of rural and urban sustainable developmental strategies in both developed and developing countries. Using Peitian village in Fujian Province of Mainland China as a case study, this article seeks to analyze the major challenges facing Peitian’s governance of its tourism through its construction of an eco-museum. The dilemma facing the governance of cultural heritage conservation - entrepreneurial politics where the majority benefit from the interests gained, and the minority bears the cost - stems from the subtractability of use and difficulty of excluding potential beneficiaries of cultural heritage from the new commons. The conclusion emphasizes the need for institutional innovation if Peitian is to sustain its economic development and make it more equitable and just. Essential prerequisites to this innovative institutional design include: a polycentric governance regime where multiple centers/arenas of power exist, an institution of co-production which breaks the divide of state/public and market/private, and civic participation.