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    Title: 農業轉型結合社會企業與公平貿易之商業模式探討-以卡維蘭為例
    Business Model of Agricultural Transformation with Social Enterprise and Fair Trade - A case study of Kavilan.
    Authors: 呂葆光
    Lu, Pao Kuang
    Contributors: 林月雲
    呂葆光
    Lu, Pao Kuang
    Keywords: 公平貿易
    社會企業
    農業
    卡維蘭
    Fair Trade
    Social Enterprise
    Agriculture
    Kavilan
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-07-01 16:09:48 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   台灣雖為小島,但因所處的緯度與地形讓台灣擁有熱帶到寒帶氣候型態,得天獨厚的地理條件使台灣的水果多樣性豐富造就水果王國的美名。先天優勢加上發達的生技與種植技術,台灣理應具先進的農業發展,農民也有良好的生活條件。然而實際上許多尤其在山區或偏鄉的農民卻長期處於貧窮狀態,間接造成人口外移,生活條件不佳等問題。而主要原因是農民距離市場過遠,又不善於取得市場資訊,一直以來都依賴盤商將商品賣到市場,寡買甚至獨賣的情況下農民缺乏議價能力而一直面臨貧窮問題。為了增加收入便大量使用農藥與肥料,結果產量增加有限卻破壞土壤汙染環境,影響作物的品質,品質不佳,議價能力變弱形成惡性循環。
      針對此一問題國際上經過數十年的調整,發展出了公平貿易原則。而國內也有許多農民或網路平台也開始採取產地直購的方式經營,希望藉此改善收入問題。本研究的個案卡維蘭也是其中之一,但相較於其他平台,卡維蘭除了讓利農民外更進一步希望能協助農民改善耕作技術與生活環境,當中隱含了公平貿易中的永續發展概念,因此本研究選擇卡維蘭作為研究對象,希望藉由探討國際的公平貿易發展,研究卡維蘭個案的發展情形,再考量台灣特有的環境後提出一個創新商業模式來解決上述問題。
    為了實際了解個案的運作情形,除了訪談外,筆者更於2015~2016年間實際加入卡維蘭團隊經營達半年之久,以親身的經歷觀察與訪談資料進行研究分析,研究結果認為引進公平貿易精神是台灣農業轉型朝永續發展的必然趨勢,然而當前仍有眾多阻礙需要克服,卡維蘭的努力加上民眾對公平貿易與社會企業的意識逐漸升高,已為轉變帶來希望。
      With the unique geographical conditions, Taiwan has an ideal environment of cultivating various types of fruit. Moreover, with advanced biotechnology, Taiwan should have a highly developed agriculture which improved farmers’ living condition. Nevertheless, most of the farmers don’t possess the knowledge and skills of sales, therefore it’s hard for them to sell their product to the market. They have to rely on the wholesalers, which restricted the farmers’ bargaining power. Without the ability to earn enough money, lots of them are living in poor conditions. In order to raise the harvest, some farmers use too much fertilizer and pesticide at the stake of jeopardizing the environment, yet the production increase is limited. Such measure incurred unstable quality and decreased bargaining power, thus the farmers were trapped in vicious circles.
      To solve similar problems, fair trade has been developed throughout the world over decades to help farmers achieve better trading conditions. In Taiwan, many farmers and internet platform have tried to sell crops directly on internet to make sure that the farmers get a fair price, our case company Kavilan is one of them. In addition, Kavilan not only offers the farmers a fair price but also tries to help them improve their farming skills and build a healthy environment. There are fair trade and sustainability idea in their business model. Therefore, Kavilan is chosen as the research target. By studying the international fair trade development and the case Kavilan considering the circumstances of Taiwan, this study try to create a new business model with the concept of fair trade and social entrepreneurship to solve these problems.
      To understand how Kavilan works, this author had joined Kavilan for half year during 2015-2016 to collect first hand data and analyze its operations. After conducting an in-depth research, the result shows that the transformation of agriculture involving fair trade is necessary for sustainability. Although there is still a lot of challenge to be dealt with, the efforts of Kavilan and the rising awareness of fair trade and social enterprise in public have bring hope to the change of agricultural industry.
    Reference: 中文文獻
    論文
    林晏萱(2004)。社會企業跨國經營模式之研究:以社團法人台灣微客公益行動協會為例(碩士論文)。取自臺灣博碩士論文系統。(系統編號102NTNU0205001)
    鄭勝分(2005)。歐美社會企業發展及其在台灣應用之研究(博士論文)。取自http://163.15.185.7/sfcheng/bookview.asp
    姚春如(2008)。公平貿易運動:制度演化的觀點(碩士論文)。取自臺灣博碩士論文系統。(系統編號097CCU05227001)
    書籍
    尤傳莉(譯)(2012)。獲利世代Business Model Generation。(原作者:Osrwewalder, A & Pigneur, Y)。台北市:早安財經文化。(原著出版年:2010)
    期刊
    鄭勝分(2007)。社會企業的概念分析。政策研究學報,7,65-107。
    鄭勝分(2008)。社會企業:市場、公共政策與公民社會的交叉點。公共行政學報,27,199-206。(TSSCI)。
    網站資料
    台灣公平貿易協會。關於公平貿易標籤About Fairtrade Labels。台灣公平貿易協會2016.05.26。取自http://fairtrade.org.tw/?page_id=577
    社企流(2016.01.09)。2016富比士 「30歲以下傑出社會企業家」名單出爐!用商業力量解決社會問題。社企流2016.06.01。取自http://www.seinsights.asia/article/3289/3285/3851

    英文文獻
    Anheier, Helmut K. (2003). The Study of Nonprofit Enterprise:Theories and Approaches. New York: Springer.
    Borzaga, C. & Santuari, A. (2003). The Non-profit Sector in a Changing Economy. Paris, France: OECD, 37-38
    Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. London and New York: Routledge, 21-22.
    Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise, London and New York: Routledge, 350-370.
    Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building Theories from Case Study Research. New York: The Academy of Management.
    Elkington, J (1997) Cannibals with Forks: Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business. Oxford UK: Capstone Publishing Ltd.
    Fairtrade International (FLO). Trader Standard. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://www.fairtrade.net/standards/our-standards/trade-standard.html
    Fairtrade International (FLO). (2015). 2013-14_AnnualReport_FairtradeIntl. Retrieved May 27, 2016 from http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/2009/resources/2013-14_AnnualReport_FairtradeIntl_web.pdf
    Grameen Bank. History Grameen Bank-Bank For Small Business. Retrieved April 30, 2016 from http://www.grameen-info.org/history/
    OECD (1999). Social Enterprises. Paris. France. OECD Publishing.
    OECD (1999). The Non-profit Sector in a Changing Economy. Paris. France. OECD Publishing.
    World Fair Trade Organization。DEFINITION OF FAIR TRADE. Retrieved May 21,2016 from http://wfto.com/fair-trade/definition-fair-trade
    World Fair Trade Organization. History of Fair Trade. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://wfto.com/about-us/history-wfto/history-fair-traded
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    企業管理研究所(MBA學位學程)
    102363103
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0102363103
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[企業管理研究所(MBA學位學程)] 學位論文

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