中國大陸自改革開放以來，除經濟的成長，政治社會層面亦產生變化，原計劃經濟體制下的城市「單位體制」正是受到市場經濟衝擊的代表。中國城市社會的轉型被描繪為「單位人」轉化為「社會人」，城市社區組織的變革與轉型，被視為是單位瓦解後的因應。然而，在居委會組織興起之後，單位體制的影響力是否從此不復存在？城市社區居民，是否熱衷參與居委會選舉、投身社區自治事務？對中國大陸政治社會制度轉型過程中可能發生的變化，主要有「制度同化說」（新制度將替代舊制度）與「新傳統主義說」（新制度將奠基於舊制度）兩種相對立的論點。既存的單位體制之於新興的居委會，兩者之間的關係為何？本研究主張：單位制對社區自治發展將產生不利效果。因為在社會轉型的過程中，制度的本質或運作邏輯不同，新舊制度主要仍屬相互抑制與替代。新制度必須在掙脫舊制度後，方能真正茁壯。 China has been undergoing rapid economic growth and socio-political changes since the year 1978. The danwei system inherited from the planned economy thus has to face all the challenges in market transition. The reformulation of the community organization in Chinese cities is thus widely considered as the consequences of the breakdown of the danwei system. And, China’s urban transformation thus is also understood as the process changing from a “danwei man” to a “society man.” Even loosing its significance, however, the danwei system still maintain considerable influences on the newly emerging Residents’ Committee (RCs) system. Then, do Chinese urban residents show any differences in participating in RC elections due to their connections with the danwei system? Two contrastive hypotheses can be drawn to help understand the interactions between danwei and RCs: the market transition theory, which emphasizes the replacement of the old system with the new one, and the neo-traditionalism, according to which the new system is founded on the old one. In this study, I argue that the danwei system is incompatible with the RCs by obstructing residents’ participation in the elections of RCs. According to my research, the main reason lies in the fact that the two institutions are (1) functional overlapping and mutual-replacing and (2) competing for resources from above and allegiance from below. Such relation unavoidably leads to the gradual replacement of the danwei system as the RS takes roots step by step in China’s cities. What lesson can we draw from this study? The response may be: only when the old socio-political system is fully discarded can the new system be fully developed.