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    Title: 臺灣音韻異常兒童之顎音習得與產製
    The Acquisition and Production of Mandarin Palatals in Disordered Children
    Authors: 符庭瑄
    Fu, Ting Hsuan
    Contributors: 萬依萍
    Wan, I Ping
    符庭瑄
    Fu, Ting Hsuan
    Keywords: 構音/音韻異常
    語言發展遲緩
    兒童語言習得
    音節複雜度
    臺灣
    developmental speech disorder
    child language acquisition
    syllable complexity
    Taiwan Mandarin
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-08-02 15:43:36 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本篇論文針對三位以臺灣華語為母語的音韻異常兒童,採長期觀察的方式,研究中文顎音[tɕ, tɕʰ, ɕ]的習得狀況與產製現象。習得狀況方面,詳細描述顎音的習得順序、常見的語音錯誤之音韻歷程、延遲的音韻歷程類型、錯誤取代模式隨著年紀增長而改變的情形。產製現象方面,本篇論文探討了顎音所在音節的音節複雜度(Syllable complexity)是否會對顎音的正確率以及錯誤取代狀況有所影響。

    本研究共觀察三位年齡為三歲十個月至五歲三個月且正在接受語言治療的音韻異常兒童長達六個月,以每週一次的頻率前往醫院收集幼童與語言治療師之間的自然對話,並利用錄製回來的影音檔做譯寫和分析。

    結果顯示,音韻異常兒童的顎音習得狀況有以下現象:(1)顎音發展較為停滯,幾乎沒有隨著年齡的增長而有進步的現象。(2)音韻異常兒童在發顎音時,會系統性的使用不該是他的年齡所應該出現的音韻歷程。(3)顎音的語音錯誤之音韻歷程種類不多,但使用的頻率卻非常頻繁。上述結果皆驗證了前人文獻的研究結果(Stoel-Gammon & Dunn, 1985; Jeng, 2011)。除此之外,本研究也發現音韻異常兒童具有以下特徵:(4)音韻異常兒童能夠察覺兩個音之間送氣特徵(aspiration feature)的不同,在選擇替代音時,也會選擇與目標音有相同送氣特徵的音來取代。(5)音韻異常兒童的語言能力和語言表現之間有落差,也就是說,他們知道能夠區辨出哪個是正確的音,但卻無法正確的使用該語音。(6)音節複雜度會對音韻異常兒童的顎音產製造成影響。因此,音韻異常兒童在顎音的習得狀況和產製表現上都和正常兒童不同。

    音韻異常兒童使用的錯誤音的模式顯示塞擦音基底形式中的[stop]成分及[cont]成分並非均等(asymmetrical relationship),且塞擦音是屬於以左邊的成分為主要核心的語音(left-headed),並從第一語言習得的觀點為塞擦音的真實面貌提供了一項證據。
    The purpose of this study is to discuss the issue concerning the acquisition and production of Mandarin palatals [tɕ, tɕʰ, ɕ] in Taiwan Mandarin-speaking disordered children. Four aspects regarding the acquisition of Mandarin palatals are included in this study: the order of acquisition, the phonological processes involved, the delayed phonological processes, and the path of error patterns. In addition, the effect of syllable complexity on disordered children’s palatal production is also examined.

    Three disordered children (aged 3;10 to 5;3) who were identified as having delayed phonological development are investigated in this study. A six-to-seven month of longitudinal observation is conducted by recording the spontaneous speech between the therapists and the children during the process of speech therapy.

    The results showed that phonologically disordered children have the following characteristics on palatal acquisition and production: (1) static phonemic system that stops at an early level of development, (2) persistent uses of delayed processes, and (3) frequent uses of phonological processes. These characteristics were asserted in the literature (Stoel-Gammon & Dunn, 1985; Jeng, 2011) and have been proved in this study. In addition, we found that disordered children are unconsciously able to notice the aspiration feature of two sounds, and will use an error sound that has an identical aspiration feature with the target. Moreover, the disparity between the linguistic competence and the linguistic performance in the disordered children was also found. Last, syllable complexity has found to affect disordered children’s palatal production.

    The substitution errors used by the disordered children support Schafer’s (1995) study, in which he claimed that the underlying representation of affricates is left-headed. To sum up, this study has provided a piece of evidence for the unsolved issue of the nature of affricates from the field of first language acquisition, and might serve as a reference for parents and speech therapists for understanding palatal acquisition and production in disordered children.
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