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The Role of Pragmatic Factors on Young Children’s Referential Choices: The Individual, Interplay, and Cumulative Effects
Wang, Xiao Ting
Huang, Chiung Chih
Wang, Xiao Ting
|Issue Date: ||2016-08-09 09:50:43 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||前人文獻指出語用因素 (Pragmatic factors)，例如擁有共同注意力在指涉物上、先前提及指涉物，皆會影響幼兒的指涉詞選擇 (如 Huang, 2013; Hughes & Allen, 2013; Matthew, 2006)。然而，較少文獻將重心放在不同的語用因素是否會有不同的影響。本文以實驗方式探討以下四個研究問題：(1) 個別語用因素之效果是否不同；(2) 語用因素彼此交互之效果是否不同；(3) 累積效果是否存在；(4) 幼兒的指涉詞選擇是否有發展趨勢。共同注意力 (Joint Attention)、先前提及 (Prior Mention)、以及環境中無其它潛在指涉物 (Contextual Disambiguation) 為三個實驗中所操弄的語用因素，用以誘導受測者的指涉詞選擇，如名詞、代名詞、省略。三到四歲幼兒、五到六歲幼兒、以及成人為三個受測族群。|
實驗結果發現，個別語用因素之效果顯著不同，可能的原因為言談因素以及環境因素之間的差異所造成 (Hughes & Allen, 2015)。再來，語用因素交互之效果顯著不同，推測的原因為語用因素彼此間聚合和競爭所致 (Hughes & Allen, 2015)。此外，累積之效果顯著地影響幼兒的指涉詞選擇，推斷其效果與門檻理論(Threshold approach; Allen, 2008) 相關。最後，隨著年齡增長，幼兒的指涉詞選擇會逐漸與成人相似，可能的原因為心智理論 (Theory of mind) 的發展成熟度所導致。本論文的研究結果提供了進一步且系統性的證據，說明語用因素在幼兒指涉詞的影響以及幼兒對於語用因素的感知度之發展情形。
Previous studies (e.g., Huang, 2013; Hughes & Allen, 2013; Matthew, 2006) have shown that pragmatic factors, such as both of the participants having the same focus on the target referent when communicating, had effects on children’s referential choices. However, little attention has been paid to the different effects of the pragmatic factors. Using an experimental design, this thesis aimed to (1) examine whether there were differences between the effects of individual pragmatic factors, (2) investigate whether there were differences between the effects of their interplays, (3) provide additional evidence for the cumulative effect of the pragmatic factors on children’s referential choices, and (4) explore children’s developmental trend of their referential choices. Three pragmatic factors—Joint Attention, Prior Mention, and Contextual Disambiguation—were manipulated to elicit the participants’ referential choices, such as noun forms, pronominal forms, and omissions. The participants in the experiment were comprised of three age groups: 3- to 4-year-old children, 5- to 6-year-old children, and adults.
The results revealed that the effects of the individual pragmatic factors were significantly different, which might have been caused by differences between the discourse and contextual factors (Hughes & Allen, 2015). In addition, the effects of the interplays between the pragmatic factors were also significantly different, which might have resulted from the converging and competing effects (Serratrice, 2008). Moreover, there was a significant cumulative effect on the children’s referential choices, which appeared to be related to the threshold approach (Allen, 2008). Furthermore, the children’s sensitivities to the different effects of the pragmatic factors gradually became more adult-like with age, which might have been caused by their development of the theory of mind. The findings of this study provide additional and systematic evidence for the effects of the pragmatic factors on young children’s referential choices and the developmental trend of young children’s sensitivities to the effects of the pragmatic factors.
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|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1025550032|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[語言學研究所] 學位論文|
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