過去研究顯示青少年普遍認為睡眠是重要的，但仍有睡眠不足及不規律的問題。本研究目的以計劃行為理論的架構，透過結構方程模式進行統計分析，探討認知因素對青少年週間週末睡眠不規律及週間睡眠不足的影響。結果顯示，高中生對規律睡眠的正負向信念（態度）與主觀知覺到執行該行為的促進與阻礙因素（知覺行為控制），可共同解釋40%規律睡眠意圖，但只能解釋4%規律睡眠行為。進一步考量忙碌程度與時間管理技巧，日常活動總時數高於平均的高忙碌組，規律睡眠意圖在加入時間管理技巧調節後，對規律睡眠行為的解釋力提高至11%。顯示，影響其規律睡眠行為因素，除了個人認知想法外，還需考量時間資源及其規劃技巧。然而，計劃行為理論對充足睡眠行為的解釋並未獲得驗證。 Introduction: Irregular sleep pattern and insufficient sleep are common among high school students and have been shown to have a negative impact on their daily function. The current study is to explore the cognitive factors that determine sleep patterns in high school students based on the TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior), and to examine the role of amount of daily activities and time management skill in moderating the intention for healthy sleep patterns. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty senior high school students from North Taiwan were included in the study. A questionnaire constructed based on the TPB was administered to assess their sleep beliefs, perceived attitude toward sleep of significant others, and perceived control over their sleep behaviors. Their actual sleep habit, daily activity level, time management skills, and intention for regular and sufficient sleep were also assessed. The model was then verified with the Structure Equation Model. Results: The TPB was shown to explain the regularity of sleep pattern in high school students very well but not the duration of sleep. The attitude about sleep and perceived behavioral control accounted for 40% of the variation of intention for regular sleep, but account for only 4% of actual behavior. In high daily activity group, adding the factor of time-management increases the explanatory power to 11%. Although the model based on the TPB does generate acceptable fitting indices for the duration of sleep, the total explanatory power is very low (3%). Conclusion: For busy senior high school students, increased positive attitude towards sleep and the controllability of sleep behaviors are associated with intention for regular sleep. The intention may be actualized in their sleep behavior in those with better time-management skill. Sleep education addressing these issues may be helpful in improving sleep patterns in high school students.
教育與心理研究, 34(4),1-27 Journal of Education & Psychology