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    Title: 政治資源抑或政治動員:中國大陸投票參與城鄉差異之研究
    Political resource or political mobilization: a preliminary study of urban-rural differences on voting participation in Mainland China
    Authors: 楊貴
    Yang, Gui
    Contributors: 陳陸輝
    Chen, Lu Huei
    楊貴
    Yang, Gui
    Keywords: 基層選舉
    投票參與
    公民自願主義
    城鄉差異
    政治資源
    政治動員
    Local election
    Voting participation
    Civic voluntarism
    Urban-rural difference
    Political resources
    Political mobilization
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-08-10 10:06:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 改革開放的三十年既是中國基層選舉推行的三十年,也是中國公民社會緩慢發展的三十年。過去的實證研究發現在威權體制下民眾投票參與的行為存在動員、吸納和疏離三種模式。本研究籍由中國有限基層選舉和公民社會的發展,依據2010年中國綜合社會調查的資料,從公民社會與公民自願主義分析民眾的投票參與行為和模式。參與理論的公民自願主義認為民眾政治參與需要三類要素:資源、態度和動員。在本研究中,筆者強調政治資源和政治動員因素的影響,以解釋威權國家在公民社會得到發展的過程中,民眾的投票參與呈現的是自主式參與還是動員式參與,以期和現有研究進行理論上的對話。本研究為填補投票參與現有研究的不足,以城市居委會和農村村委會選舉中民眾投票參與所存在的城鄉差異,從公民社會與政治參與的理論去解釋民眾投票參與城鄉差異的可能來源。
    本研究的結果顯示:公民自願主義參與理論可以解釋基層選舉中民眾的投票參與行為。無論在城市還是農村,政治資源的作用比較有限,教育甚至存在抑制作用,但政治動員的影響則十分顯著,參與宗教活動、進行政治討論、加入工會和政黨等能有效提升民眾的投票參與。顯示出當下基層選舉中,民眾的投票參與不是基於政治資源的自主式參與,更多是基於政治動員的動員式參與。此外,在城鄉差異方面,城市民眾較之農村民眾愈不會投票。這一結果主要是由公民社會發展的差異造成的。雖然城市居民擁有更為豐富的政治資源,被政治動員的程度也更高,但是政治資源的抑制作用在城市高於農村,而政治動員的動員效應在城市低於農村。說明城鄉之間的差異狀態,深刻影響著城鄉居民的投票參與行為。
    Many empirical studies have found that there are three basic modes of mass participation in the authoritarian regimes, that is mobilization model, motivation model and disengagement model. And previous research on voting participation is mostly based on urban residents or rural residents, while comparative studies between of them are still absent. Based on a nationally representative data(the Chinese General Social Survey, 2010), this essay uses Verba, Schlozman, and Brady’s Civic Voluntarism Model to analyze the determinants of citizen’s voting participation in the local election of China. Moreover, we also explore how urban-rural structure affect people’s voting participation. Special attention is paid to two participatory factors: political resources, political mobilization.
    The major findings of this essay are: firstly, after controlling for political predispositions and demographic variables, the effect of political resources is mixed, that is, education, personal income and occupational status don’t increase people’s voting participation in China. Secondly, we find that political mobilization are strongly related to voting participation in the local election. Organizational members are more likely mobilized to vote than non-organizational members. However, the influence of religious attendance and political discussion fall to nonsignificance. Lastly, looking at urban-rural differences on voting participation, we find that rural residents are more likely to vote than urban residents. Rural residents are more active in voting participation, mainly because of the weak negative effect of political resources and the strong positive effect of political mobilization. In sum, evidence from the local election suggests citizen’s voting participation is not based on political resources, but an outcome of political mobilization. And rural residents are more active in voting participation than urban residents.
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