|Abstract: ||這是一份有關台資在墨西哥及其對雙邊貿易影響的研究報告。在過去二十年間, 與其他拉丁美洲國家不同的是 : 比起中國大陸的投資, 墨西哥接受了更多來自台灣的資金。 墨西哥對台灣及中國大陸的貿易,也一直呈現赤字。 因此, 這份研究報告分析了此一現象,也陳述了台灣與墨西哥這些發展型國家如何因應工業化和全球化, 有著各式各樣的反應。|
Chinese investments in Latin America have been a popular research topic in recent years, with China becoming the largest investor and trading partner for important countries in the region. However, the case of Mexico is different from its neighboring nations in South America. During the past two decades, and despite the lack of diplomatic relations, accumulated investment from Taiwan in Mexico surpassed that coming from Mainland China. Similarly, Taiwan is among the ten largest trading partners of Mexico, exporting to the latter more than 16 times the amount it imports from there. Therefore, this research aims to explore the patterns of Taiwanese investments in Mexico, and its impact on bilateral trade, as a way to explain its huge imbalance. Theoretically, the study analyzes the evolution of state institutions in both countries, highlighting its difference in approach when responding to the challenges of industrialization first, and then globalization. By following an independent approach, the state in Taiwan was able to advance developmental policies, and eventually consolidate domestic industries with national firms creating its own technology and knowledge-based assets. The state in Mexico, on the other hand, in spite of the implementation of developmental institutions, pursued an integrationist approach, strengthening domestic industries, though making them dependent on foreign capital and the acquisition of technology coming from abroad. NAFTA became the highest point of Mexico’s integrationist approach, hence transforming the country into an attractive export platform to the largest consumer market in the world. Looking to remain competitive internationally, Taiwanese firms started a process of expanding operations beyond their borders, taking Mainland China and Southeast Asia as its preferred destinations, reinforcing the creative process of East Asian regional production and supply chains. Mexico became a complementary part for many of those firms’ strategies, leading them to invest in the country, ensuring a rapid access to the US market, but pushing them to import large amounts of technology, components, and parts from Taiwan and Mainland China. An empirical analysis, combining the use of statistical data and interviews, will allow us to better understand the motivations behind Taiwanese investments in Mexico, as well as its impact on Mexico’s foreign trade, and will be useful when thinking about solutions to correct trade imbalances, while expanding bilateral trade for the years to come.